ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΣ Π. ΧΡΟΥΣΟΣ

Πρωτότυπες δημοσιεύσεις

  1. Musliner T., Chrousos G.P., Amos H. (1977) Transport Enhancement and Reversal: Glucose and 3-0-

Methylglucose. J. Cell. Physiology 91: 155-168.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Barnes K.M., Sauer M.A., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr. (1980) 1,9(11)-11-

Deoxycortisol: An Improved Antiglucocorticoid. Endocrinology 107: 472-477.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Sherins R., Cutler G.B. Jr. (1981) Unilateral Testicular Enlargement

Resulting from Inapparent 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. J. Urol. 126: 127-128.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Poplack D., Kostolich M., Wiede C., Oliff A., Brown T., Bercu B. (1981) Hypothalamic-

Adenohypophyseal Function in the Rhesus Monkey: A Primate Model. J. Med. Primatol. 10(2): 61-71.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Wachsclicht-Rodbard H., Adams A., Roth J., Cornblath M. (1981) Increased 125I- Insulin

Specific Binding in Hypoglycemic Infants and Children. Ped. Res. 15: 1345-1347.

  1. Wishnick M.M., Valenti Q., Doyle E.F., Balian A., Genieser N., Chrousos G.P. (1982) Churg-Strauss

Syndrome: Development of Cardiomyopathy during Corticosteroid Treatment. Am. J. Dis. Child. 136:

339-344.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Peck G., Gross E., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1982) Adrenal Function in Women with

Idiopathic Acne, J. Invest. Dermatol. 78 (6): 468-471.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Mann D., Cutler G.B. Jr. (1982) Late-onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency is

an allelic variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia characterized by attenuated clinical expression and

different HLA haplotypes associates. Horm. Res. 16: 193-200.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Brown T., Bercu B. (1982) Pharmacologic Effects of Melatonin on Hypothalamic9

Adenohypophyseal Function in the Nonhuman Primate. Neuroendocrinology 34: 343-346.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Renquist D., Brandon D., Barnard D., Fowler D., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (1982) The

Squirrel Monkey: Receptor-mediated End-organ Resistance to Progesterone? J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 55: 364-368.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Renquist D., Brandon D., Eil C., Pugeat M., Vigersky R., Cutler G.B., Loriaux D.L.,

Lipsett M.B. (1982) Glucocorticoid Resistance and Primate Evolution: Receptor-mediated Mechanisms.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 179: 2036-2040.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Mann D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr. (1982) Late-onset 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

Mimicking Polycystic Ovarian Disease: An Allelic Variant of Congenital Virilizing Adrenal

Hyperplasia with a Milder Enzymatic Defect. Ann. In. Med. 96: 143-148.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Poplack D., Brown T., O’Neil D., Schwade J., Bercu B. (1982) Effects of Cranial

Radiation on Hypothalamic-Anterior Pituitary Function: Abnormal Growth Hormone Secretory

Dynamics. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 54: 1135-1139.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Vingerhoeds A., Brandon D., Pugeat M., Eil C., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (1982)

Primary Cortisol Resistance in Man: A Glucocorticoid Receptor-mediated Disease. J. Clin. Invest. 69:

1261-1269.

  1. Cassorla F., Albertson B., Chrousos G.P., Booth J., Renquist D., Lipsett M.B., Loriaux D.L. (1982) The

Mechanism of Hypercortisolemia in the Squirrel Monkey. Endocrinology 111: 448-451.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Oldfield R., Gold P., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1982) The effects of

Corticotropin Releasing Factor on the Anterior Pituitary Function of Stalk-Sectioned Cynomolgus

Macaques. Dose Response of Cortisol Secretion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 55: 810-812.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P., Philips J., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1982) Metabolic

Clearance Rate and Plasma Half-life of Radioiodinated Corticotropin Releasing Factor in a Nonhuman

Primate. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 55: 1023-1025.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Sauer M.A., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1982) 1-11-Oxa-11-deoxycortisol: A New

Antiglucocorticoid with Activity in vivo. Steroids 40: 425-431.

  1. Healy D.L., Hodgen G.D., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Nicholas R.H., Goldstein H.L.

(1983) The Thymus-adrenal Connection: Thymosin Has Corticotropin Releasing Activity in Primates.

Science 222: 1353-1355.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Vingerhoeds A.C.M., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (1983) Primary Cortisol Resistance: A

Family Study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 56: 1243-1245.

  1. Healy D.L., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Williams R.F., Baulieu E.E., Gold P.W., Hodgen G.D. (1983)

Pituitary and Adrenal Responses to the Anti-progesterone and Antiglucocorticoid Steroid RU 486 in

Primates. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 57: 863-865.

  1. Jacobowitz D.M., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1983) Localization of GRF-like

Immunoreactive Neurons in the Rat Brain. Peptides 4: 521-524.

  1. Pugeat M., Rocle B., Chrousos G.P., Dunn J., Lipsett M.B., Nisula B.C. (1984) Plasma Testosterone

Transport and Primate Evolution. J. Steroid Biochem. 20: 473-478.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Oldfield E.H., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1984)

Corticotropin Releasing Factor: Pharmacokinetics in Man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 58: 192-196.

  1. Doppman J.L., Oldfield E.H., Krudy A.G., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Loriaux D.L., Schaaf M.

(1984) Anatomic and Technical Considerations of the Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling for Cushing’s

Disease. Radiology. 150: 999-103.

  1. Almeida O.F.X., Schulte H.M., Rittmaster R.S., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Merriam G.R. (1984)

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Potency and Specificity of a Growth Releasing Factor in a Primate and in Vitro. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 58: 309-312.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Brandon D., Tomita M., Renquist D., Hogan W., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (1984)

Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in a Progesterone “Resistant” New World Primate. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 58: 516-520.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Oldfield E.H., Gold P.W., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1984) The

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Stimulation Test: An Aid in the Differential Diagnosis of Cushing’s

Syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 310: 622-627.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Avgerinos P., Gold P.W., Oldfield E.H., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L.

(1984) The Corticotropin Releasing Factor Stimulation Test: a Possible Aid in the Evaluation of Adrenal

Insufficiency. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 58: 1064-1067.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Brandon D., Hogan W., Renquist D., Johnson E., Lipsett M.B. (1984)

Adaptation of the Mineralocorticoid Target Tissues to the High Circulation Cortisol and Progesterone

Plasma Levels in the Squirrel Monkey. Endocrinology 115: 25-32.

  1. Pugeat M., Chrousos G.P., Nisula B., Loriaux D.L., Brandon D.D., Lipsett M.B. (1984) Plasma Cortisol

Transport and Primate Evolution. Endocrinology 115: 357-361.

  1. Rock J., Oldfield E.H., Schulte H.M., Gold P.W., Kornblith P.L., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P., (1984)

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Administered into the Ventricular CSF Stimulates the Pituitary-adrenal

Axis. Brain Res. 323: 376-368.

  1. Crawley J.N., Ninan P.T., Pickar D., Chrousos G.P., Linnoila M., Scolnick, Paul S.M. (1984)

Neuropharmacological Antagonism of the beta-Carboline-induced “Anxiety” Response in Rhesus

Monkeys. J. Neuroscience 5: 477-485.

  1. Winterer J., Chrousos G.P., Cassorla F., Loriaux D.L. (1984) Acquired Refractoriness to Growth

Hormone in a Patient with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency: Growth Hormone and Plasma

Somatomedin C Response to High Dose Growth Hormone Therapy. J. Pediatrics, 104: 908-911.

  1. Schuermeyer T.H., Avgerinos P.C., Gold P.W., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1984)

Human Corticotropin Releasing Factor in Man. Pharmacokinetic Properties and Dose-response of

Plasma ACTH and Cortisol Secretion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 59: 1103-1108.

  1. Udelsman R., Bacher J., Galluci W., Gold P.W., Morin M.L., Renquist D., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P.

(1984) Hemodynamic and Endocrine Parameters in the Anesthetized Cynomolgus Monkey: A Primate

Model. J. Med. Primatol. 13: 327-337.

  1. Chrousos Antonakou G., Levine Ross J., Chrousos G.P., Chu F.C., Kenigsberg D., Cutler G.B. Jr.,

Loriaux D.L. (1984) Ocular Findings in Turner Syndrome. A Prospective Study. Ophthalmology 91:

926-928.

  1. Tomita M., Chrousos G.P., Brandon D.D., Ben-Or S., Foster C., DeVougn L., Taylor S.J., Loriaux D.L.,

Lipsett M.B. (1985) Glucocorticoid Receptors in Epstein-Barr Virus-transformed Human Lymphocytes.

Hormone Metabol. Res. 17: 674-678.

  1. Oldfield E.H., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Rock J.P., Poplack D.G., Gold P.W., Culter G.B. Jr.,

Kornblith P.L., Loriaux D.L. (1985) Active Clearance of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor from the

Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neuroendocrinology 40: 84-87.

  1. Evans M.I., Chrousos G.P., Mann D.L., Larsen J.W., McCluskey J., Green I., Loriaux D.L., Overpeck J.,

Fletcher J., Schulman J. (1985) Attempted Prevention of Abnormal Genital Masculinization in

Suspected Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia by Adrenocortical Suppression in Utero. JAMA 253:1015-

1020.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Oldfield E.H., Gold P.W., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1985)

Corticotropin Releasing Factor Administration in Normal Men: Pituitary and Adrenal Responses in the

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Morning and Evening. Horm. Res. 21: 69-74.

  1. Winterer J., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr. (1985) The Adrenal Suppressive Effect of

Hydrocortisone in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia is not Affected by Varying the Dose Schedule. J.

Pediatrics 106: 137-142.

  1. Schuermeyer T.H., Gold P.W., Galluci W.T., Tomai T.P., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P.

(1985) Effects and Pharmacokinetic Properties of the rat/human Corticotropin Releasing Factor (r/h

CRF) in Rhesus Monkeys. Endocrinology 117: 300-306.

  1. Schutt-Aine J., Young M.A., Pescovitz O.H., Chrousos G.P., Marx S.J. (1985) Hypoparathyroidism: a

Possible Cause of Rickets. J. Pediatrics. 106: 255-259.

  1. Healy D.L., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Gold P.W., Hodgen G.D. (1985) Increased ACTH, Cortisol

and Arginine Vasopressin (AVP) Secretion Following the Antiglucocorticoid RU 486: Dose-response

Relationships. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 60: 1-4.

  1. Oldfield E.H., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Loriaux D.L., Schaaf M., Doppman J. (1985) Preoperative

Lateralization of ACTH Secreting Pituitary Microadenomas by Bilateral and Simultaneous Inferior

Petrosal Sinus Sampling: N. Engl. J. Med. 312: 100-103.

  1. Rittmaster R.S., Cutler G.B. Jr., Sobel D.O., Koppelman M.C.S., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1985)

Morphine Inhibits the Pituitary-adrenal Response to Ovine Corticotropin Releasing Factor in Normal

Subjects. J.Clin. Endocrinol Metab 60: 891-895.

  1. Schuermeyer T.H., Tsokos G.C., Avgerinos P.C., Loriaux D.L., Balow J.E., Chrousos G.P. (1985)

Pituitary-adrenal Responsiveness to Corticotropin-releasing Hormone in Patients Receiving Chronic,

Alternate-day Glucocorticoid Therapy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 61: 22-27.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Booth J.D., Oldfield E.H., Culter G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1985)

Continuous Administration of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Normal Volunteers: Physiological

and Pathophysiological Implications. J. Clin. Invest. 75: 1781-1785.

  1. Susman E., Nottelman F., Inoff G., Dorn L., Loriaux D.L. Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P. (1985) The

Relation of Hormonal Level and Physical Development and Social-emotional Behavior in Young

Adolescents. J. Youth and Adolescence. 14: 245-264.

  1. Rose S., Schulte H.M., Rauch A., White B., Hill S., Chandra R., Randolf J., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P.

(1985) Testicular Dysgenesis and Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis: Biochemical Characterization and

Management of a Typical Case. J. Ped. Endocrinol. 1: 123-128.

  1. Berrettini H.W., Nurnberger J., Gold P.W., Chretien M., Chrousos G.P., Chan J.S.D., Goldin L.R.,

Gerson E. (1985) Neuropeptides in the Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Life Sciences 37: 1265-1270.

  1. Udelsman R., Harwood J., Millan M., Chrousos G.P., Catt K.J., Aguilera G. (1985) Functional

Receptors for Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Primate Peripheral Sympathetic System. Nature 319:

147-150.

  1. Berrettini W.H., Nurnberger J.I., Chan J.S., Chrousos G.P., Gaspar L., Gold P.W., Seidah N.G.,

Simmons-Alling S., Goldin L.R., Chretien M., Gershon E.S. (1985) Proopiomelanocortin-related

Peptides in Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Study of Manic Depressive Disorder. Psychiatry Res. 16: 287-302.

  1. Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Kellner C., Spitz I., Nisula B., Cutler G.B. Jr., Merriam G.R., Bardin C.W.,

Loriaux D.L. (1985) Successful Treatment of Cushing’s Syndrome with the Glucocorticoid Antagonist

RU 486. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 61: 536-540.

  1. Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Roy A., Kling M.A., Calabrese J.R., Kellner C.H., Nieman L.K., Post R.M.,

Pickar D., Gallucci W., Avgerinos P., Paul S., Oldfield E.H., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P. (1986)

Responses to Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in the Hypercortisolism of Depression and Cushing’s

Disease: Pathophysiologic and Diagnostic Implications. N. Engl. J. Med. 314: 1329-35.

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  1. Rose S.R., Chrousos G.P., Cornblath M., Sidbury J. (1986) Oral Starch in the Management of Postoperative

Nesidioblastosis. J. Pediatrics 108: 97-100.

  1. Tomita M., Brandon D., Chrousos G.P., Vingerhoeds A.C.M., Foster C.M., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B.

(1986) Characterization of Glucocorticoid Receptors from Epstein-Barr Virus-transformed Lymphocytes

from Glucocorticoid Resistant Patients and a New World Primate. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62: 1145-

1154.

  1. Weiss S.R.B., Post R.M., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Sullivan T.L., Walker D., Pert A. (1986) CRFinduced

Seizures and Behavior: Interaction with Amygdala Kindling. Brain Res. 372: 345-351.

  1. Levine Ross J., Schulte H.M., Gallucci W.T., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1986) Ovine

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Normal Children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62:

390-392.

  1. Schiebinger R., Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B., Loriaux D.L. (1986) The Effect of Serum Prolactin on

Plasma Adrenal Androgens and the Production and Metabolic Clearance Rate of

Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Normal and Hyperprolactinemic Subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 62: 202-209.

  1. Gold P.W., Gwirtzman H., Avgerinos P., Nieman L.K., Gallucci W.T., Kaye W., Jimerson D., Ebert M.,

Rittmaster R., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1986) Abnormal Hypothalamic-pituitary-Adrenal Function

in Anorexia Nervosa: Pathophysiologic Mechanisms in Underweight and Weight-corrected Patients. N.

Engl. J. Med. 314: 1335-42.

  1. Avgerinos P.C., Schuermeyer T., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P. (1986)

Pulsatile Administration of Human Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Patients with Secondary Adrenal

Insufficiency: Restoration of the Normal Cortisol Secretory Pattern. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62:

816-821.

  1. Rosner W., Pugeat M., Chrousos G.P., Khan M.S. (1986) Steroid Binding Proteins in Primate Plasma.

Endocrinology. 118: 513-517.

  1. Pavlov E.P., Harman M.S., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Blackman M.R. (1986) Responses of Plasma

Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), Cortisol, and Dehydroepiandrosterone to Ovine Corticotropin Releasing

Hormone in Healthy Aging Men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62: 767-772.

  1. Oldfield E.H., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Benker G., Peterson R.E., Cutler G.B. Jr.,

Loriaux D.L. (1986) Corticotropin Releasing Factor Stimulates ACTH Secretion in Nelson’s Syndrome.

  1. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62: 1020-1026.
  2. Udelsman R., Gallucci W.T., Ramp J., Goldstein D.S., Lipford R., Norton J.A., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos

G.P. (1986) Adaptation during Surgical Stress: A Reevaluation of the Role of Glucocorticoids. J. Clin.

Invest. 77: 1377-1381.

  1. Roy-Byrne P.P., Uhde T.W., Post R.M., Gallucci W., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1986) The CRH

Stimulation Test in Patients with Panic Disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 143: 396-399.

  1. Roy A., Gold P.W., Pickar D., Wolkowitz O.M., Chrousos G.P., Paul S.M. (1986) Pre- and Postdexamethasone

Plasma ACTH Levels in Depressed Patients and Normal Controls. J. Affective Dis. 10:

95-99.

  1. Udelsman R., Bacher J., Gallucci P.W., Gold P.W., Renquist D., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1986)

Hemodynamic Effects of Human Corticotropin-releasing Factor (hCRF) in a Nonhuman Primate.

Peptides 7: 465-471.

  1. Munabi A., Feuillan P., Staton R., Rodbard D., Chrousos G.P., Anderson R.E., Strober M.D., Loriaux

D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr. (1986) Adrenal Steroid Responses to Continuous Intravenous ACTH Infusion

Compared to Bolus Injection. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 63: 1036-1040.

  1. Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Oldfield E.H., Avgerinos P.C., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1986) The

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Ovine CRH Stimulation Test and the Dexamethasone Suppression Test in the Differential Diagnosis

of Cushing’s Syndrome. Ann. Int. Med. 105: 862-867.

  1. A., Pickar D., Doran A., Wolkowitz O., Gallucci W., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1986) Normal ACTH

and cortisol Responses to Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Schizophrenia. Am. J. Psychiatry 143:

1393-1397.

  1. Saris S.C., Patronas N.J., Doppman J.L., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P.,

Oldfield E. (1986) Pituitary CT Scanning in Cushing’s Syndrome. Radiology 162: 775-777.

  1. Doppman J.L., Oldfield E.H., Chrousos G.P., Nieman L.K., Udelsman R., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L.

(1986) Rebound Thymic Hyperplasia Following Treatment of Cushing’s Syndrome. Am. J. Radiology

147: 1145-1147.

  1. Feuillan P., Poth M., Reilly W., Bright G., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1986) Ketokonazole Treatment

of Type Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome: Effects on Pituitary-adrenal Axis. J. Pediatrics, 109:

363-366.

  1. Nottelman E.D., Susman E.J., Dorn L.D., Inoff G.E., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P. (1987)

Developmental Processes in Early Adolescence: Relations among Chronological Age, Pubertal Stage,

Height, Weight, and Serum Levels of Gonadotropins, Sex Steroids and Adrenal Androgens. J. Adol.

Health Care 8: 35-48.

  1. Susman E., Inoff G., Nottelman E., Dorn L., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Hormones, Emotional

Disposition and Aggression Attributes in Early Adolescents. Child Development 58: 1114-1134.

  1. Rittmaster R.S., Cutler G.B. Jr., Brandon D., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) The

Effects of Endogenous Vasopressin on ACTH and Cortisol Secretion in Man. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.

64: 371-376.

  1. Laue L., Hoeg J.M., Barnes K., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) The Effect of Mevinolin on

Steroidogenesis in Patients with Defects in the LDL Receptor Pathway. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 64:

531-535.

  1. Kaye W.H., Gwirtsman H.E., George D.T., Ebert M., Jimerson D., Tomai T., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W.

(1987) Elevated Cerebro-spinal Fluid Levels of Immunoreactive Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in

Anorexia Nervosa: Relation to State of Nutrition, Adrenal Function and Intensity of Depression. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 64: 203-208.

  1. Nieman L.K., Choate T., Chrousos G.P., Healy D., Spitz I., Merriam G.R., Bardin C.W., Loriaux D.L.

(1987) Progesterone Antagonist RU 486: A Potential New Contraceptive Agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:

187-191.

  1. Nottelman E.D., Susman E.J., Dorn L.D., Inoff E.G., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P. (1987)

Developmental Processes in American Early Adolescents: Relations Between Adolescent Adjustment

and Chronological Age, Pubertal Stage and Puberty-related Hormone Levels. J. Pediatrics 110: 473-

480.

  1. Udelsman R., Norton J., Jelenich S., Goldstein D., Linehan W.M., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987)

Responses of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and Renin-angiotensin Axis and the sympathetic

System during Controlled Surgical and Anesthesia Stress. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 64: 986-994.

  1. Feuillan P., Stein C.A., LaRocca R., Lipford N., Raffeld M., Renquist D., Meyers C.E., Chrousos G.P.

(1987) Effects of Suramin on the Function and Structure of the Adrenal Cortex in the Cynomolgus

Monkey. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65: 153-158.

  1. Kawai S., Nieman L.K., Brandon D.D., Udelsman R., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987)

Pharmacokinetic Properties of the Antiglucocorticoid and Antiprogesterone Steroid of RU 486 in Man.

  1. Exp. Pharmacol. Ther. 241: 401-406.
  2. Luger A., Deuster P., Kyle S.B., Gallucci W.T., Montgomery L.C., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos

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G.P. (1987) Acute Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Responses to the Stress of Treadmill Exercise:

Physiologic Adaptations to Physical Training. N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 1309-1315.

  1. Doppman J.L., Loughlin T., Miller D.L., Pass V.J., Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B. Jr., Oldfield E.H.,

Loriaux D.L. (1987) Identification of ACTH Producing Intrathoracic Tumors by Measuring ACTH

Levels on Aspirated Specimens. Radiology 163: 501-503.

  1. Risin Counts D., Hirsch Pescovitz O., Barnes K.M., Chrousos G.P., Sherins R.J., Comite F., Loriaux

D.L., Cutler G.B. (1987) Dissociation of Adrenarche and Gonadarche in Precocious Puberty and in

Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 64: 1174-1178.

  1. Udelsman R., Goldstein D., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Catecholamine-glucocorticoid

Interactions during Surgical Stress. J. Sur. Res. 43: 539-545.

  1. May C., Rapoport S.J., Cutler N.R., Chrousos G.P., Tomai T.P., Gold P.W. (1987) CSF Concentrations

of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Corticotropin Are Reduced in Patients with Alzheimer’s

Disease. Neurology 37: 535-538.

  1. Roy A., Pickar D., Linnoila M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1987) Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin

Releasing Hormone in Depression: Relationship to Noradrenergic Function. Psychiatry Res. 20: 229-

237.

  1. Avgerinos P.C., Cutler G.B. Jr., Tsokos G.C., Gold P.W., Feuillan P., Gallucci W.T., Pillemer S.R.,

Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Dissociation between Cortisol and Adrenal Androgen Secretion in

Patients Receiving Alternate Day Prednisone Therapy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65: 24-29.

  1. Roy A., Pickar D., Paul S., Doran A., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W (1987) CSF Corticotropin Releasing

Hormone in Depressed Patients and Normal Control Subjects. Am. J. Psychiatry 114: 641-645.

  1. Luger A., Calogero A., Kalogeras K., Gallucci W., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987)

Interaction of Epidermal Growth Factor with the Hypothalamic-pituitary Adrenal Axis: Potential

Physiologic Relevance. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 66: 334-337.

  1. Laue L., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Nieman L.K., Munson P., Schaison G. (1987) RU 486

Suppresses the Plasma ACTH Response to Ovine Corticotropin-releasing Hormone. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 66: 290-293.

  1. Grino M., Chrousos G.P., Margioris A. (1987) The Corticotropin Releasing Factor Gene is Expressed in

the Human Term Placenta. Biol. Bioph. Res. Com 148: 1208-1214.

  1. Doppman J.L., Miller D.L., Dwyer A.J., Loughlin T., Nieman L., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P., Oldfield

E., Loriaux D.L. (1987) Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia in Cushing’s Disease. Radiology 166: 347-

352.

  1. Avgerinos P.C., Chrousos G.P., Nieman L.K., Oldfield E.H., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. (1987) The

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Test in the Postoperative Evaluation of Patients with Cushing’s

Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65: 906-913.

  1. Balis F.M., Lester C.M., Chrousos G.P., Heideman R.L., Poplack D.G. (1987) Differences in

Cerebrospinal Fluid Penetration of Corticosteroids: Possible Relationship to Prevention of Meningeal

Leukemia. J Clin Oncol 5: 202-207.

  1. Berrettini W.H., Nurnberger J.I. Jr., Zerbe R.L., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Tomai T. (1987) CSF

Neuropeptides in Euthymic Bipolar Patients and Controls. Br. J. Psychiatry 150:208-212.

  1. Roy A., Gallucci W., Linnoila M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1988) The CRH Stimulation Test in

Bereaved Subjects with and without Accompanying Depression. Psych. Res. 25:145-156.

  1. Albertson B., Brandon D.D., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1988) Adrenal 11-Hydroxylase Activity in a

Hypercortisolemic New World Primate: Adaptive Intra-adrenal Changes. Steroids 49: 497-505.

15

  1. Inoff-Germain G., Snyder Arnold G., Nottelmann E.D., Susman E.J., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P.

(1988) Relations between Hormone Levels and Observational Measures of Aggressive Behavior of

Young Adolescents in Family Interactions. Dev. Psychol. 24: 129-139.

  1. Laue L., Hoeg J., Barnes K., Levine Ross J., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Abnormal Growth

Hormone Secretory Dynamics in Children with Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Hormone Res. 938:1-6.

  1. Calogero A.E., Bernardini R., Gallucci W.T., Saoutis C., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Cholinergic

Stimulation of Rat Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Vitro. Neuroendocrinology 47:

303-308.

  1. Giuffre K., Udelsman R., Listwak S., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Effects of Immune Neutralization of CRH,

ACTH, and Endorphin in the Surgically Stressed Rat. Endocrinology 122: 306-310.

  1. Feuillan P., Pang S., Avgerinos P., Schuermeyer T., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Adaptation of the

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Patients with Partial (Late-onset) 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. J.

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 67: 154-160.

  1. Margioris A., Grino M., Protos P., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

and Oxytocin Stimulate the Secretion of Immunoreactive alpha-MSH, beta-Endorphin and ACTH from

the Human Placenta In Vitro. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 66: 922-926.

  1. Laue L., Kawai S., Brandon D., Knazek R., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Receptor-Mediated

Effects of Glucocorticoids on Inflammation: Enhancement of the Inflammatory Response with a

Glucocorticoid Antagonist. J. Steroid Biochem. 29: 591-598.

  1. Luger A., Deuster P., Kyle S.B., Gallucci W.T., Montgomery L.C., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1988)

Renin-angiotensin Responses during Treadmill Exercise. Hormone Res. 30: 5-9.

  1. Laue, L., Gallucci, W., Loriaux, D.L., Udelsman, R., Chrousos G.P. (1988) The Antiglucocorticoid and

Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486: Its Glucocorticoid Agonist Effect is Inadequate to Prevent Adrenal

Insufficiency in Primates. J. Clin. Endocrinol Metab. 67: 602-606.

  1. Calogero A.E., Gallucci W.T., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1988) Interaction between Gabaergic

Neurotransmission and Rat Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Secretion In Vitro. Brain

Res. 463: 28-36.

  1. Calogero A.E., Gallucci W.T., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1988) Effect of the Catecholamines Upon Rat

Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Secretion In Vitro: Clinical Implications. J. Clin.

Invest. 82: 839-846.

  1. Calogero A., Gallucci W.T., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Multiple Regulatory Feedback Loops on

Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Secretion. J. Clin. Invest. 82: 767-774.

  1. Doppman J.L., Frank J.A., Dwyer A.J., Oldfield E.H., Miller D.L., Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Cutler

G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1988) Gadolinium DPTA Enhanced MR Imaging of ACTH-Secreting

Microadenomas of the Pituitary Gland. J. Comp. Assist. Tom. 12: 728-735.

  1. Laue L., Peacock J., Gallucci W.T., Brandon D.D., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P., Norton

J.A. (1988) Glucocorticoid Receptor-mediated Effects on Rat Fibrosarcoma Growth. Cancer Res. 48:

2703-2706.

  1. Deuster P., Chrousos G.P., Luger A., Kyle S.B., Gallucci W.T., Montgomery L.C., Loriaux D.L. (1989)

Sympathetic System Responses to the Stress of Treadmill Exercise. Physiologic Adaptations to Physical

Training. Metabolism 38: 141-148.

  1. Calogero A.E., Bernardini R., Margioris A.N., Gallucci W.T., Munson P.J., Tamarkin L., Tomai T.P.,

Brody L., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Serotonin Stimulates Rat Hypothalamic Corticotropin

Releasing Hormone Secretion In Vitro. Peptides 10: 189-210.

  1. Kawai S., Brandon D., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Interaction of RU 486, A Glucocorticoid and

16

Progesterone Antagonist, with Human Circulating Mononuclear Leukocytes. Am. J. Med. Sci. 296:

167-171.

  1. Friedman R.B., Oldfield E.H., Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Doppman J.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L.

(1989) Repeat Transsphenoidal Surgery in Cushing’s Disease. J. Neurosurg. 71: 520-527.

  1. Margioris A., Koukoulis G., Grino M., Chrousos G.P. (1989) In Vitro Perifused Rat Testis Fragments

Secrete beta-Endorphin and Dynorphin: Effect of Opioids on Testosterone Secretion. Biol. Reprod. 40:

776-784.

  1. Perry R.R., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Doppman J.L., Travis W.D.,

Norton J.A. (1989) Primary Adrenal Causes of Cushing’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and Surgical

Management. Ann. Surg. 210: 59-68.

  1. Sternberg E., Hill J.M., Chrousos G.P., Kamilaris T., Listwak S., Gold P.W., Wilder R.L. (1989)

Inflammatory mediator-induced Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis Activation is Defective in

Streptococcal Cell Wall Arthritis – susceptible Lewis Rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 2374-2378.

  1. Gomez M.T., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Periodic Cushing’s Syndrome in a Short Boy: Usefulness of the

Ovine CRH Test. J. Pediatr. 115: 270-273.

  1. Linder B., Feuillan P., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Alternate-day Prednisone Therapy in Congenital Adrenal

Hyperplasia: Adrenal Androgen Suppression and Normal Growth. J Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 69:91-195.

  1. Bagdy G., Calogero A., Chrousos G.P., Szemeredi K. (1989) Delayed Effects of Chronic Cortisol

Treatment on Brain and Plasma Concentrations of Corticotropin (ACTH) and beta-Endorphin. Brain Res.

489: 216-222.

  1. Sternberg E.M., Young W.S. Jr., Bernardini R., Calogero A., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Wilder R.L.

(1989) A Central Nervous Defect in the Stress Response is Associated with Susceptibility to

Streptococcal Cell Wall Arthritis in Lewis Rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 86: 4771-4775.

  1. Bernardini R., Chiarenza A., Calogero A.E., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Arachidonic Acid

Metabolites Modulate Rat Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Secretion in Vitro.

Neuroendocrinology 50: 708-715

  1. Bernardini R., Calogero A.E., Ehlich Y.H., Brucke T., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1989). The Alkylether

Phospholipid Platelet-activating Factor is a Stimulator of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis

in the Rat. Endocrinology 125: 1067-1073.

  1. Calogero A., Gallucci W.T., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1989) Cocaine Stimulates Rat Hypothalamic

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Secretion in Vitro. Brain Res. 505: 7-11.

  1. Doppman J.L., Pass H.I. Nieman L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1989) Failure of

Bronchial Lavage to Select Elevated Levels of ACTH in Patients with ACTH-Producing Bronchial

Carcinoids. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 69: 1302-1304.

  1. Travis W.D., Tsokos M., Doppman J.L., Nieman L., Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B., Loriaux D.L., Norton

J.A. (1989) Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease: A Light and Electron Microscopic

Study of Eight Cases. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 13: 921-930.

  1. Calogero A., Kamilaris T., Gomez M.T., Johnson E.O., Tartaglia E., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1989)

The Muscarinic Cholinergic Agonist Arecoline Stimulates the Rat Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis

Through a Centrally-mediated Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Mechanism. Endocrinology 125: 2445-

2453.

  1. Doppman J.L., Travis W.D., Nieman L.K., Miller D.L., Pass H.I., Chang R., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos

G.P., Norton J.A., Ziessman H.A., Oldfield E.H., Loriaux D.L.v(1989) Cushing’s Syndrome Due to

Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease: Findings at CT and MR Imaging. Radiology

172(2):415-420.

17

  1. Doppman J.L., Nieman L.K., Miller D.L., Pass H.I., Chung R., Cutler G., Schauf M., Chrousos G.P.,

Norton J.A., Zirrsman H.A., Oldfield E.H., Loriaux D.L. (1989) Ectopic Adrenocorticotropin Hormone

Syndrome: Localization Studies in 28 Patients. Radiology 172: 115-124.

  1. Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B. Jr., Oldfield E.O., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1989) The Ovine

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test is Superior to the Human Cortico- tropin Releasing

Hormone Test for the Detection of Cushing’s Disease. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 69: 165-169.

  1. Marx S.J., Jones G., Weinstein R.J., Chrousos G.P., Renquist D. (1989) Vitamin D and Mineral

Metalbolism in New World and Old World Primates: A Novel State with Hyperphosphatetic

Osteomalacia in Aotus trivirgatus. J. Olin. Endocrinol. Metab. 69:1282-1290

  1. Pass H.I., Doppman J.L., Nieman L., Stovroff M., Veto J., Norton J.A., Travis W., Chrousos G.P., Cutler

G.B. Jr. (1990) Management of the Ectopic ACTH Syndrome Due to Thoracic Carcinoids. Ann Thorac-

Surg 50: 52-57.

  1. Calogero A., Kling M.A., Gallucci W.T., Bernardini R., Chrousos G.P. and P.W. Gold (1990) Procaine

and Lidocaine Stimulate Corticotropin Releasing hormone Secretion by Explanted Rat Hypothalami

through a Sodium Conductance Independent Mechanism. Horm. Metab. Res. 22: 1-4.

  1. Dorn L., Susman E.J., Nottelmann E.D., Inoff-Germain G., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Perceptions of Puberty:

Adolescent, Parent, and Health Care Personnel Ratings of Pubertal Stage. Develop. Psych. 26: 322-329.

  1. Gazdar A.F., LaRocca R.V., Chen T.R., Triche T.J., Myers C.E., Chrousos G.P., Brennan M.R., Stein

C.A., Oie H.K. (1990) Establishment and Characterization of a Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cell

Line That Expresses Multiple Pathways of Steroid Biosynthesis. Cancer Res. 50: 5488-5496.

  1. Rabin D., Johnson E., Brandon D., Liapi C., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Glucocorticoids Inhibit Estradiolinduced

Uterine Growth: Possible Role of Estrogen Receptors. Biol. Reprod. 42: 74-80.

  1. Calogero A.E., Kamilaris T.C., Bernardini R., Johnson E.O., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1990)

Relevance of the “Peripheral” Benzodiazepine Receptor System to Hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal

Function: Physiological and Clinical Implications. J. Pharmacol Exp. Therap. 253: 729-737.

  1. Margioris A., Brockmann G., Bohler H., Grino M., Vamvakopoulos N., Chrousos G.P. (1990)

Expression and Localization of Growth Hormone – Releasing Hormone mRNA in Rat Placenta: In Vitro

Secretion and Regulation of Its Peptide Product. Endocrinology 126: 151-158.

  1. Malozowski S., Muzzo S., Burrows R., Leiva L., Loriaux L., Chrousos G.P., Winterer J., Cassorla F.

(1990) The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Infantile Malnutrition. Clin. Endocrinol. 32:461-465.

  1. Calogero A.E., Bagdy G., Szemereti, Tartaglia M.E., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Mechanisms of

Serotonin Agonist-induced Activation of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in the Rat.

Endocrinology 126: 1888-1894.

  1. Margioris A.N., Brockmann G., Kalogeras K., Fjellestad-Paulsen A., Stratakis C.A., Vamvakopoulos N.,

Chrousos G.P. (1990) Effect of Hypertonic Saline Infusion on the Levels of Immunoreactive Dynorphin

in Extracted Human Plasma. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 298-304.

  1. Bernardini R., Kamilaris T.C., Calogero A.E., Johnson E.O., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1990)

Interactions Between Tumor Necrosis Factor-, Hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and

Adrenocorticotropin Secretion in the Rat. Endocrinology 126: 2876-81.

  1. Calogero A., Kamilaris T., Johnson E.O., Tartaglia M., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Recovery of the Rat

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis after Prolonged Treatment with Dexamethasone. Endocrinology

127: 1574-1579.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N., Karl M., Mayol V., Margioris A., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Structural Analysis of the

Regulatory Region of the Human Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Gene. FEBS Lett 267:1-5.

  1. Kalogeras K.T., Calogero A.E., Kuribayashi T., Khan I., Gallucci W.T., Kling M.A., Chrousos G.P.,

18

Gold P.W. (1990) In vitro and In vivo Effects of the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam on

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Function: Pharmacologic and Clinical Implications. J Clin Endocrinol

Metab, 70: 1462-1471.

  1. Rabin D., Schmidt P., Campbell G., Gold P.W., Jensvold M., Rubinow D., Chrousos G.P. (1990)

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Function in Patients with the Premenstrual Syndrome. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 71: 1158-1162.

  1. Doherty J.M., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P., Norton J. (1990) Time to Recovery of the

Hypothalamic Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Following Curative Resection of Adrenal Tumors in Patients with

Cushing’s Syndrome. Surgery 108:1085-90.

  1. Hurley D., Accilli D., Stratakis C., Karl M., Vamvakopoulos N., Rorer E., Constantine K., Taylor S.,

Chrousos G.P. (1991) Point Mutation Causing a Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Hormone

Binding Domain of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance. J. Clin. Invest.

87:680-686.

  1. Laue L., Lotze M.T., Chrousos G.P., Barnes K., Loriaux D.L., Fleisher T.A. (1990) Effects of the

Glucocorticoid Antagonist RU 486 in Man: Toxicity, Immunological and Hormonal Aspects. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 71:1474-1480.

  1. Gomez M.T., Malozowski S, Winterer J., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Urinary Free Cortisol Values in Normal

Children and Adolescents. J. Pediatrics 118:256-258.

  1. Bernardini R., Calogero A., Mauceri, Chrousos G.P. (1990) Rat Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing

Hormone Secretion In Vitro is Stimulated by Interleukin-1 in an Eicosanoid-dependent Manner. Life

Sciences 47:1601-7.

  1. Bagdy G., Calogero A., Szemeredi K., Gomez M.T., Sved A.F., Murphy D.L., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W.

(1990) -Endorphin Responses to Different Serotonin Agonists: Involvement of Corticotropin Releasing

Hormone, Vasopressin and Direct Pituitary Action. Brain Res. 537(1-2):227-32.

  1. Bagdy G., Calogero A., Szemeredi K., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1990) effects of Cortisol Treatment

on Brain and Adrenal Cortcotropin Releasing Hormone Content. Regulat. Peptides 31:83-92.

  1. Doppman J.L., Nieman L.K., Travis W.D., Miller D.L., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P. Norton J.A. (1991)

CT and MR Imaging of Massive Macronodular Adrenocortical Disease: A Rare Cause of Autonomous

Primary Adrenal Hypercortisolism. J. Comp. Asst. Tom. 15:773-779.

  1. Bagdy G., Chrousos G.P., Calogero A. (1991) Circadian Patterns of Plasma Corticotropin, – Endorphin,

Corticosterone and Prolactin after Immunoneutralization of Corticotropin-releasing Hormone.

Neuroendocrinology 53:573-578.

  1. Vanderpool J., Rosenthal N., Chrousos G.P., Wehr T., Skewerer R., Kasper S., Gold P.W. (1991)

Evidence for Hypothalamic CRH Deficiency in Patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 72:1382-1387.

  1. Doppman J., Pass H., Nieman L.K., Findling J., Dwyer A., Feuerstein I., Ling A., Travis W., Cutler

G.B., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1991) Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detection of ACTHproducing

Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors, Am. J. Roentgen. 156:39-43.

  1. Johnson E.O., Kamilaris T.C., Carter S., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P.. (1991) Environmental Stress and

Reproductive Success in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus) Am. J. Primatol 25:191-

201 (1991).

  1. Kling M.A., Doran A., Rubinow D.R., Roy A., Post R.M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1991) CSF Levels

of CRH, ACTH, and SRIF in Cushing’s Syndrome, Major Depression, and Normal Volunteers:

Physiological and Pathophysiological Interrelationships. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 72:260-271.

  1. Laue L., Peck G., Gallucci W.T., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Adrenal Androgen Secretion in

Postadolescent Cystic Acne: Increased Adrenocortical Function without Hypersensitivity to ACTH. J.

19

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73:380-384.

  1. Calogero A.E., Liapi C., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Hypothalamic and Suprahypothalamic Effects of

Prolonged treatment with the Glucocorticoid Type II Receptor Agonist Dexamethasone in the Rat. J.

Endocrinol. Invest. 14:277-286.

  1. Smoak B., Deuster P., Rabin D., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone is Not the Sole

Factor Mediating Exercise-induced ACTH Release in Humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 72:302-306.

  1. Sombolos K., Kapetanos G., Kalogeras K.T., Christodoulou A., Chrousos G.P., Symeonidis P. (1991)

Effect on Atrial Natriuretic Peptide by Bracing in Scoliosis. Boston Brace Removal Studied in 10 cases.

Acta Orthop Scand. 62:379-82.

  1. Waltman C., Blackman M.R., Chrousos G.P., Riemann C., Harman S.M. (1991) Spontaneous and

Glucocorticoid-inhibited Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Secretion Are Similar in Healthy

Young and Old Men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73:495-502.

  1. Perini G.I., Dervinsky O., Hauser P., Gallucci W.T., Theodore W., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Kling

M.A. (1992) Effects of Carbamazepine on Pituitary-adrenal Function in Healthy Volunteers. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 74:406-412.

  1. Travis W.D., Linnoila R., Tsokos M., Hitchcock C., Cutler G., Nieman L., Chrousos G.P., Pass H.,

Doppman J. (1991) Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung with Proposed Criteria for Large Cell

Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: An Ultrastructural, Immunochemical, and Flow Cytometric Study of 35

Cases. Amer. J. Surg. Path. 15:529-553.

  1. Demitrack M., Dale J., Straus S., Laue L., Listwak S., Kruesi M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1991)

Evidence of Impaired Activation of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Patients with Chronic

Fatigue Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73:1224-1234.

  1. Karalis C., Sano H., Redwine J., Listwak S., Wilder R., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Autocrine or Paracrine

Inflammatory Actions of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone In Vivo. Science 254:421-423.

  1. Friedman T.C., Thomas P.M., Fleisher T.A., Feuillan P., Parker R.I., Cassorla F., Chrousos G.P. (1991)

Frequent Occurrence of Asplenism and Cholelithiasis in Patients with Autoimmune Polyglandular

Disease Type I. Amer. J. Med. 91:625-630.

  1. Oldfield E.H., Doppman J., Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Miller D.L., Katz D.A., Cutler G.B., Loriaux

D.L. (1991) Petrosal Sinus Sampling with and without Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Patients with

Cushing’s Syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:897-905.

  1. Susman E.J., Dorn L.D., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Negative Affect and Hormone Levels in Young

Adolescents: Concurrent and Predictive Perspectives. J. Youth Adolesc. 20:167-190.

  1. Calogero A., Sternberg E., Bagdy G., Smith G., Bernardini R., Aksentijevich S., Wilder R.L., Gold P.W.,

Chrousos G.P. (1992) Neurotransmitter-induced Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis Responsiveness is

Defective in Inflammatory Disease-Susceptible Lewis Rats: In vivo and In vitro Studies Suggesting

Globally Defective Hypothalamic CRH Secretion. Neuroendocrinology. 55:600-608.

  1. Calogero A.E., Norton J.A., Sheppard B.C., Listwak S.J., Cromack D.T., Wally R., Jensen R.T.,

Chrousos G.P. (1992) Pulsatile Activation of the Hypothalamic – pituitary – adrenal Axis during Major

Surgery. Metabolism 41:839-845.

  1. Aksentijevich S., Whitfield Jr H.J., Young III W.S., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Sternberg

E.M. (1992) Arthritis-susceptible Lewis Rats Fail to Emerge from the Stress Non-responsive period.

Dev. Brain Res. 65:115-118.

  1. Flack M.R., Oldfield E.H., Cutler G.B., Zweig M.H., Melley J.D., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Nieman

L.K. (1992) The Use of Urine Free Cortisol in the High Dose Dexamethasome Suppression Test for the

Differential Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome. Ann. Int. Med. 116:211-217.

20

  1. Kamilaris T., Johnson E., Calogero A.E., Kalogeras K., Bernardini R., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W.

(1992) Cholecystokinin-octapeptide Stimulates Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Function in Rats: Role of

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone. Endocrinology 130:1764-1784.

  1. Calogero A.E., Kamilaris T.C., Johnson E.O., P.W., Chrousos G.P., (1992) “Peripheral” Benzodiazepine

receptor Ligands Stimulate Prolactin Release in the Rat. J. Neuroendocrinology 2:745-750.

  1. Luger A., Watschinger B., Deuster P., Svoboda T., Clodi M., Chrousos G.P. (1992) Plasma Growth

Hormone and Prolactin Responses to Graded Levels of Acute Exercise and to a Lactate Infusion.

Neuroendocrinology 56:112-117.

  1. Marini J.C., Bordenick S., Heavner G., Rose S., Hintz R., Rosenfeld R., Chrousos G.P. (1993). The

Growth Hormone and Somatomedin Axis In Short Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 76:251-256.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N., Mayol V., Margioris N., Chrousos G.P. (1992) Lack of Dexamethasone Modulation

of mRNAs involved in the Glucocorticoid Signal Transduction Pathway in Two Cell Systems. Steroids

57:1-6.

  1. Cash J.M., Crofford L.J., Gallucci W.T., Sternberg E.M., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. and Wilder R.L.

(1992) Pituitary-adrenal Axis Responsiveness to Ovine CRH in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Treated with Low-dose Prednisone. J. Rheumatol. 19:1692-6.

  1. Deuster P.A., Singh A., Hofmann A., Moses F.M., Chrousos G.P.. (1992) Hormonal Responses to

Ingesting Water or a Carbohydrate Beverage During a 2h Run. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc. 24:72-79.

  1. Burnet P., Meffor I.N., Smith C.C., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Sternberg E.M. (1992) Hippocampal

[3H]-8-hydroxy-2,3-(diphenylalanine)-tetralin binding site densities, serotonin receptor (5-HT1A)

messenger ribonucleic acid abundance and serotonin levels parallel the activity of the

hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis in rat. J. Neurochemistry 59:1062-1070.

  1. Sternberg E.M., Glowa J., Smith M.A., Calogero A.E., Listwak S.J., Aksentijevich S., Chrousos G.P.,

Wilder R.L., and Gold P.W. (1992) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Related Behavioral and

Neuroendocrine Responses to Stress in Lewis and Fischer Rats. Brain Res. 570:54-60.

  1. Roy M.S., Roy A., Gallucci W.T., Collier B., Young K., Kamilaris T.C., Chrousos G.P. (1993) The

Ovine Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Test in Type I Diabetic Patients and Controls: Suggestion of

Mild Chronic Hypercortisolism. Metabolism 42:696-700.

  1. Patchev V., Kalogeras K., Zelazowski P., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P. (1992). Increased Plasma

Concentrations and Hypothalamic Content and In Vitro Release of Arginine-Vasopressin in

Inflammatory Disease-prone, Hypothalamic CRH-deficient Lewis Rats. Endocrinology 131:1453-1457.

  1. Kling A., Rubinow D.R., Doran A.R., Roy A., Davis C.L., Calabrese J.R., Nieman L.K., Post R.M.,

Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1993) Cerebrospinal Fluid Immunoreactive Somatostatin Concentrations in

Patients with Cushing’s Disease and Major Depression: Relationship to Indices of Corticotropin-

Releasing Hormone and Cortisol Secretion. Neuroendocrinology 57:79-88.

  1. Chikanza I.C., Petrou P., Chrousos G.P., Kingsley G., and Panayi G. (1992) Detective Hypothalamic

Response to Immune/Inflammatory Stimuli in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis and

Rheumatism 35:1281-1288.

  1. Karl M., Lamberts S.W., Detera-Wadleigh S., Encio I.J., Stratakis C.A., Hurley D.M., Accili D.,

Chrousos G.P. (1993) Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance Caused by a Splice Site Deletion in the Human

Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76:683-89.

  1. Crofford L.J., Sano H., Karalis K., Webster E.L., Goldmuntz E.A., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L. (1992)

Local Secretion of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in the Joints of Lewis Rats with Inflammatory

Arthritis. J. Clin. Invest. 90:2555-2564.

  1. Doppman J.L., Pass H.I., Nieman L.K., Miller D.L., Chang R., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P., Jaffe G.S.,

21

Norton J.A. (1992) Corticotropin-secreting Carcinoid Tumors of the Thymus: Diagnostic

Unreliability of Thymic Venous Sampling. Radiology 184:71-74.

  1. Cizza G., Brady L., Calogero A., Bagdy G., Lynn A.B., Kling M.A., Blackman M.R., Chrousos G. P.,

Gold P.W. (1992) Central Hypothyroidism is Associated with Advanced Age in Male Fischer 344/N

Rats: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies. Endocrinology 131:2672-2680.

  1. Smith C.C., Hauser E., Renaud N.K., Leff A., Aksentijevich S., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L., Gold P.W.,

Sternberg E.M. (1992) Increased Hypothalamic 3H-Flunitrazepam Binding in Hypothalamic- Pituitary-

Adrenal Axis Hyporesponsive Rats. Brain Res 569:295-299.

  1. Zelitch Yanovski S., Yanovski J.A., Gwirtsman H.E., Bernat A., Gold P.W., and Chrousos, G.P. (1993)

Normal Dexamethasone Suppression in Obese Binge and Non-binge Eaters with Rapid Weight Loss. J.

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76:675-79.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Cutler G.B., Chrousos, G.P., Nieman L.K. (1993) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone

stimulation following low-dose dexamethasone administration: A new test to distinguish Cushings

syndrome from Pseudo-Cushings states. JAMA 269:2232-38.

  1. Zelazowski P., Smith M.A., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L., Sternberg E.M. (1992) In Vitro

Regulation of Pituitary ACTH Secretion in Inflammatory Disease Susceptible Lewis and Inflammatory

Disease Resistant Fischer Rats. Neuroendocrinology 56:474-482.

  1. Bouzas E.A., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P., Kaiser-Kupfer M.I. (1993) Lisch Nodules in Cushing

Disease. Archives Ophthalmol. 111:439-40.

  1. Swain M.G., Patchev V., Vergalla T., Chrousos G.P., Jones E.A. (1993) Suppression of Hypothalamicpituitary-

adrenal Axis Responsiveness to Stess in a Rat Model of Acute Cholestasis. J. Clin. Invest.

91:1903-1908.

  1. Cizza G., Kvetnansky R., Tartaglia M.E., Blackman M.R., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1993)

Immobilization Stress Rapidly Decreases Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Secretion in

Vitro in the male 344/N Fischer Rat. Life Sciences 53:233-240.

  1. Crofford L.J., Sano H., Karalis K., Friedman T.C., Epps H.R., Remmers E.F., Mathern P., Chrousos

G.P., Wilder R.L. (1993) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone in Synovial Fluids and Tissues of Patients

with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis. J. Immunology 151:1-10.

  1. Chikanza I.C., Petrou P., Chrousos G.P., Kingsley G., Panayi G.S. (1993) Excessive and Dysregulated

Secretion of Prolactin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Immunopathogenetic and Therapeutic Implications. Br.

  1. Rheumatol. 32:445-448.
  2. Gomez M.T., Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Chrousos, G.P. (1993) The Pituitary Corticotroph is not

the Rate Limiting Step in the Postoperative Recovery of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in

Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 77:173-77.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N.C., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Regulated Activity of the Distal Promoter-like Element of

the Human Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene and Secondary Structural Features of its

Corresponding Transcripts. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 94:73-78.

  1. Mastorakos G., Webster E.L., Friedman T.C., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Immunoreactive Corticotropin

Releasing Hormone (CRH) and its Binding Sites in the Rat Ovary. J. Clin. Invest. 92:961-968.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N.C., Fukuhara K., Patchev V.K., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Effect of Single and Repeated

Immobilization Stress on the Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70/90 System in the Rat: Glucocorticoid-

Independent, Reversible Reduction of HSP90 in the Liver and Spleen. Neuroendocrinology 57:1057-

1065.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Yanovski S.Z., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., (1993) Differences in the Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal Axis of Black and White Women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metabol. 77:536-541.

22

  1. Yanovski J.A., Cutler G.B., Doppman J.L., Miller D.L., Chrousos G.P., Oldfield E.H., Nieman L.K.

(1993) The Limited Ability of Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling with Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

in Distinguishing Cushing Disease from Pseudo-Cushing States or Normal Physiology. J. Clin.

Endocrinology. Metab. 77:503-509.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N.C., Chrousos G.P., Griffin C.A., Hawkins A.L., Lee C., Jabs E.W. (1993) Mapping

the Intron-containing Human hsp 90 (hspCAL4) Gene to Chromosome 14G32. Cytogenet Cell Gen.

64:224-226.

  1. Bouzas E.A., Scott M.H., Mastorakos S.G., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Kaiser-Kupfer M.I. (1993)

Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in Endogenous Hypercortisolism. Arch. Ophthalmol. 111:1229-33.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N.C., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Evidence of Direct Estrogen Regulation of Human

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Gene Expression: Potential Implications for the Sexual Dimorphism of

the Stress Response and Immune/Inflammatory Reaction. J. Clin. Invest. 92:1896-1902.

  1. Patchev V.K., Mastorakos G., Brady L.S., Redwine J., Wilder R.L., and Chrousos G.P. (1993) Increased

Arginine Vasopressin Secretion May Participate in the Enhanced Susceptibility of Lewis Rats to

Inflammatory Disease. Neuroendocrinology. 58:106-110.

  1. Reincke M., Karl M., Travis W., Chrousos G.P. (1993) No Evidence for Oncogenic Mutations in

Guanine Nucleotide Binding Proteins of Human Adrenocortical Neoplasms. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metabol.

77:1419-1422.

  1. Tsigos C., Arai K., Hung W., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Hereditary Isolated Glucocorticoid Deficiency is

Associated with Abnormalilties of the Adrenocorticotropin Receptor Gene. J. Clin. Invest. 92:2461-2485.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N.C., Durkin S., Nierman W., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Mapping the Human

Adrenocorticotropin Hormone (ACTHR) Gene to the Small Arm of Chromosome 18 (18p. 11.21- pter.)

Genomics 18:454-455.

  1. Gallucci W.T., Baum A., Laue L., Rabin D.S., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Kling M.A. (1993) Sex

Differences in Sensitivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Adrenal Axis. Health Psychology 12:420-425.

  1. Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P., Weber J. (1993) Recombinant Interleukin 6 Activates the Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 27:1690-1694.

  1. Reincke M., Allolio B., Petzke F., Heppner C., Mbulamberi D., Winklemann W., Chrousos G.P. (1993)

Thyroid Dysfunction in African Trypanosomiasis: Evidence for Cytokine-Mediated Hypothyroidism.

Clin. Endocrinol. 39:455-461.

  1. Nieman L.K., Oldfield E.H., Wesley R., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., (1993) A

simplified Morning Ovine Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test for the Differential

Diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.77:1308-1312.

  1. Reincke M. Allolio B., Arlt W., Heppner C., Petcke F., Mbulamberi D., Siekman L., Vollmer D.,

Winkleman W., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Impairment of Adrenocortical Function Associated with Increased

Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Interleukin-6 Concentrations in African Trypanosomiasis.

NeuroImmunoModulation 1:14-22.

  1. Doppman J., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Fraker D.L., Norton J.A., Jensen R.T. (1994)

Adrenocorticotropin Hormone-Secreting Islet Cell Tumors: Are They Always Malignant? Radiology

190:59-64.

  1. Zeiger M.A., Fraker D.L., Pass H.I., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Norton J.A. (1993)

Effective Reversibility of the Signs and Symptoms of Hypercorticosolism by Bilateral Adrenalectomy.

Surgery 114:1138-43.

  1. Bouzas E.A., Mastorakos G., Friedman T.C., Scott M.H., Chrousos G.P., Kaiser-Kupfer M.I. (1993)

Posterior Subcapsular Cataract in Endogenous Cushing Syndrome: An Uncommon Manifestation. Invest.

Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 34:3497-3500.

23

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Gomez M.T., Rose S.R., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Suppressed

Spontaneous and Stimulated Growth Hormone Secretion in Patients with Cushing Disease Before and

After Surgical Cure. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 78:131-137.

  1. Zelazowski P., Patchev V.K., Zelazowski E.B., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Sternberg E.M. (1993)

Release of Hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Arginine Vasopressin by Interleukin-1

and -MSH: Studies in Rats with Different Susceptibility to Inflammatory Disease. Brain Res. 631:22-26.

  1. Ram Z., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Doppman J., Oldfield E.H. (1994) Early Repeat

Surgery for Persistent Cushing’s Disease. J. Neurosurg. 80:37-45.

  1. Patchev V.K., Karalis K., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Effect of Excitatory Amino Acid Transmitters on

Hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) and Arginine Vasopressin Release: Implications

for Pituitary-Adrenal Regulation. Brain Res. 633:312-316.

  1. Vamvakopoulos N.C., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Structural Organization of the 5′ Flanking Region of the

Human Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Gene. J DNA Sequencing and Mapping 4:197-206.

  1. DeBellis M., Chrousos G.P., Dorn L., Burke L., Helmers K., Kling M.A., Trickett P.K., Putnam F.W.

(1994) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Sexually Abused Girls. J. Clin

Endocrinol. Metab. 78:249-255.

  1. Kling M., Demitrack M., Whitfield H. Jr., Kalogeras K., Listwak S., DeBellis M., Chrousos G.P., Gold

P.W., Brandt H. (1993) Effects of the Glucocorticoid Antagonist RU 486 on Pituitary-Adrenal Function

in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa and Healthy Volunteers: Enhancement of Plasma ACTH and Cortisol

Secretion in Underweight Patients. Neuroendocrinol. 57:1082-1091.

  1. Reincke M., Karl M., Travis W., Mastorakos G., Allolio B., Linehan M.H., Chrousos G.P., (1994) P53

Mutations in Human Adrenocortical Neoplasms: Immunohistochemical and Molecular Studies. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 78:790-794.

  1. Cizza G., Kalogeras A.E., Brady L.S., Bagdy G., Bergamini E., Blackman M.R., Chrousos G.P., Gold

P.W. (1994) Male 344 Fischer Rats Show a Progressive Central Impairment of the Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal-Axis with Advancing Age. Endocrinology 134:1611-1620.

  1. Friedman T.C., Garcia-Borreguero D., Hardwick D., Akuete C.N., Stambuk M.K., Dorn G.B.Jr., Nieman

L.K., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Diurnal Rhythm of Plasma Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide in Humans:

Evidence for Positive Correlation with Body Temperature and Negative Correlation with REM Slow

Wave Sleep. J. Clin. Endocrin. & Metab. 78:1085-1089.

  1. Karalis K., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P., Tolis G. (1994) Somatostatin Analogs Suppress the

Inflammatory Reaction In Vivo. J. Clin. Invest. 93:2000-2006.

  1. Kawatito Y., Sano H., Kawata M., Yuri K., Yamamura Y., Kato H., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L., Kondo
  2. (1994) Local Secretion of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone by Enterochromafin Cells in Human

Colon. Gastroenterology 106:859-65.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Oldfield E.H., Gomez M.T., Doppman J.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Nieman

L.K., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Cushing Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Presentation, Diagnosis

and Therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:629-36.

  1. Auchus R.J., Mastorakos G., Friedman T.C., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Production by a Small Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with ACTH-dependent Cushing Syndrome. J.

Endocrinol. Invest. 17:447-452.

  1. Petrides J.S., Mueller G.P., Kalogeras K.T., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Deuster P.A. (1994) Exerciseinduced

Activation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis: Marked Differences in the Sensitivity to

Glucocorticoid Suppression. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79:377-383.

  1. Riddick L., Chrousos G.P., Jeffries S., Pang S. (1994) Comparison of Adrenocorticotropin and Adrenal

24

Steroid Response to Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Versus Metyrapone Testing in Patients with

Hypopituitarism. Pediatric Research 36:215-220.

  1. Scopa C.D., Mastorakos M., Friedman T.C., Melachrinou M.C., Merino M.J., Chrousos G.P. (1994)

Presence of Immunoreactive Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Thyroid Lesions. Am. J.

Pathology 145:1159-1167.

  1. Michelson D., Stone L., Galliven E., Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P., Sternberg E.M., Gold P.W. (1994)

Multiple Sclerosis is Associated with Alterations in Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 79:848-853.

  1. Arai K., Tsigos C., Suzuki Y., Irony I., Karl M., Listwak S., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Physiological and

Molecular Aspects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Action in Pseudohypoaldosteronism: A

Responsiveness Test and Therapy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79:1019-1023.

  1. Mastorakos G., Scopa C., Friedman T., Vryonidou A., Kattis D., Phenekos K., Chrousos G.P. (1994)

Presence of Immunoreactive Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Normal and Polycystic Human

Ovaries. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79:934-939.

  1. Mastorakos G., Weber J.S., Magiakou M.A., Gunn H., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-

Adrenal Axis Activation and Stimulation of Systemic Vasopressin Secretion by Recombinant Interleukin

6 in Humans: Potential Implications for the Syndrome of Inappropriate Vasopressin Secretion. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 79:1191-1197.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Final Stature in Patients with Endogenous

Cushing Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 79:1082-1085.

  1. Patchev V.K., Brady L.S., Karl M., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Gene Expression of hsp90 and Glucocorticoid

Receptors in the Brain: Evidence for Coordinate Regulation by Adrenal Steroid Levels In Vivo. Cell.

Mol. Endocrinol. 103:57-64.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Capillaritis (Purpura Simplex) Associated with Use of

Aminoglutethimide in Cushing’s Syndrome. Am. J. Hospital Pharmacy 51:2589-2591.

  1. Beuschlein F., Reincke M., Karl M., Travis W.D., Jaursch-Hancke C., Abdelhamid S., Chrousos G.P.,

Allolio B. (1994) Clonal Composition of Human Adrenocortical Neoplasms. Cancer Research 54:4927-

4932.

  1. Bernadini R., Chiarenza A., Kamilaris T.C., Renaud N., Lempereur L., Demitrack M., Gold P.W.,

Chrousos, G.P. (1994) In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists on the

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in the Rat. Neuroendocrinology 60:503-508.

  1. Friedman T., Garcia D.B., Hardwick D., Akuete C., Doppman J., Dorn L., Barker C., Chrousos G.P.

(1994) Decreased Delta Sleep and Plasma Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide Immunoreactivity in Patients

with Cushing Syndrome. Neuroendocrinology 60:626-634.

  1. Crofford L.J., Pillemer S.R., Kalogeras K.T., Cash J.M., Michelson D., Kling M.A., Sternberg E.M.,

Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L. (1994) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Axis Perturbation in

Patients with Fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism 37:1583-1592.

  1. Michelson D., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1994) Type I Glucocorticoid Receptor Blockade Does Not

Affect Baseline or Ovine Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Stimulated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

and Cortisol Secretion. NeuroImmunoModulation 1:274-277.

  1. Mastorakos G., Cizza G., Kvetnansky R., Bergamini E., Blackman M.R., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P.

(1995) Aging and Acute Stress Decrease Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in the Ovary of the Fischer

344/N Rat. Life Sciences 56:1065-1071.

  1. Latronico A.C., Reincke M., Mendonca B.B., Arai K., Mora P., Allolio B., Wajchenberg B.L.,

Chrousos, G.P., Tsigos C. (1995) No Evidence for Oncogenic Mutations in the Adrenocorticotropin

Receptor (ACTH-R) Gene in Human Adrenocortical Neoplasms. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:875-

25

877.

  1. Arai K., Tsigos C., Suzuki Y., Listwak S., Zachman K., Zangeneh F., Rapaport R., Chanoine J.P.,

Chrousos G.P. (1995) No Apparent Mineralocorticoid Receptor Defect in a Series of Sporadic Cases of

Pseudohypoaldosteronism. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:814-817.

  1. Cizza G., Pacak K., Kvetnansky R., Palkovits M., Goldstein D.S., Brady L.S., Fukuhara K., Bergamini

E., Kopin I.J., Blackman M.R., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1995) Decreased Stress Responsivity of the

Central and Peripheral Catecholaminergic Systems in the Aged 344/N Fischer Rat. J. Clin. Invest.

95:1217-1224.

  1. Heinrichs C., Deschepper J., Tsigos C., Drews R., Collu R., Dugardeyn C., Goyens P., Ghanem G.E.,

Bosson D., Chrousos G.P., Van Vliet G. (1995) Familial Adrenocorticotropin Unresponsiveness

Associated with Alacrima and Achalasia: Biochemical and Molecular Studies in Two Siblings with

Clinical Heterogeneity. European J. Peds. 154:191-196.

  1. Bamberger C.M., Bamberger A.M., De Castro M., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Glucocorticoid Receptor- Beta,

a Potential Endogenous Inhibitor of Glucocorticoid Action in Humans. J. Clin. Invest. 95:2435-2441.

  1. Tsigos C., Arai K., Latronico A-C, DiGeorge A., Rapaport R., Chrousos G.P. (1995) A Novel Mutation

of the Adrenocorticotropin Receptor (ACTH-R) Gene in a Family with the Syndrome of Isolated

Glucocorticoid Deficiency but No ACTH-R Abnormalities in Two Families with Triple A Syndrome. J.

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:2186-2189.

  1. Mastorakos G., Patchev V.K., Chader G.J., Chrousos G.P., Gaudet S.J. (1995) Differences in

arylakylamine N-Acetyltransferase Activity Between Inflammatory Disease-Susceptible Lewis and –

Resistant Fischer Rats. Neuroendocrinology 62:71-78.

  1. Doppman J.L., Nieman L.K., Chang R., Yanovski J.A., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Oldfield E.H.

(1995) Selective Venous Sampling from the Cavernous Sinuses is not a More Reliable Technique than

Sampling from the Inferior Petrosal Sinuses in Cushing Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 80:2485-

2489.

  1. Karalis K., Crofford L., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Glucocorticoid and/or Glucocorticoid

Antagonist Effects in Inflammatory Disease-Susceptible Lewis and -Resistant Fischer Rats.

Endocrinology 136:3107-3112.

  1. Karalis K., Mastorakos G., Sano H., Davis C., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Somatostatin May

Participate in the Antiinflammatory Actions of Glucocorticoids. Endocrinology 136:4133-4138.

  1. Pacak K., McCarty R, Palkovitz M., Cizza G., Kopin I.J., Goldstein D., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Decreased

Central and Peripheral Catecholaminergic Activation in Obese Zucker Rats. Endocrinology 136:4360-

4367.

  1. Mastorakos G., Bouzas E., Caspi R., Friedman T., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Immune Corticotropin

Releasing Hormone (CRH) is Present in the Eyes of and Promotes Experimental Autoimmune

Uveoretinitis (EAU) in Rodents. Endocrinology 136:4650-4658.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Mitsiadis N.S., Sun D., Chrousos G.P., O’Connell A. (1995) Recurring Oral Giant Cell

Lesion in X-Linked Hypophosphatemic Rickets: Clinical Manifestation of Occult Hyperparathyroidism?

  1. Pediatrics 127:444-446.
  2. Vgontzas A.N., Friedman T.C., Chrousos G.P., Bixler E.O., Vela-Bueno A., Kales A. (1995) Delta

Sleep-Inducing Peptide in Normal Humans and in Patients with Sleep Apnea and Narcolepsy. Peptides

16:1153-1156.

  1. Dorn L.D., Burgess E.S., Dubbert B., Kling M., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Psychopathology in

Patients with Endogenous Cushing Syndrome: “Atypical” or “Melancholic” Features. Clin. Endocrinol.

(Oxf.) 43:433-442.

  1. Cizza G., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1995) The Stress-Induced Inhibition of the Hypothalamic26

Pituitary-Thyroid Axis is Attenuated in the Aged Fischer 344/N Male Rat. Neuroendocrinology

62:506-13.

  1. Theoharides T.C., Spanos C., Pang Z., Alferes L., Ligris K., Letourneau R., Rozniecki J.J., Webster E.,

Chrousos G.P. (1995) Stress-Induced Intracranial Mast Cell Degranulation. A Corticotropin-Releasing

Hormone-Mediated Effect. Endocrinology 136:5745-50.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Yanovski S.Z., Harrington L., Gold P., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Differences in the

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis of Black and White Men. Hormone Research 44:208-212.

  1. Chen H., Doppman J.L., Chrousos G.P., Norton J.A., Nieman L.K., Udelsman R. (1995) ACTHSecreting

Pheochromocytomas: The Exception to the Rule. Surgery 118:988-995.

  1. Yu K.C., Alexander H.R., Ziessman H.A., Norton J.A., Buell J.F., Nieman L.K., Cutler Jr G.B.,

Chrousos G.P., Fraker D.L. (1995) The Role of Pre-Operative Iodocholesterol Scintiscanning in Patients

Undergoing Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome. Surgery 118:981-987.

  1. Amikura K., Alexander R.H., Norton J.A., Doppman J.L., Jensen R.T., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B.,

Chrousos G.P., Fraker D.L. (1995) The Role of Surgery in Management of ACTH-Producing Islet Cell

Tumors of the Pancreas. Surgery 118:1125-1130.

  1. Kawahito Y., Sano H., Mukai S., Asai K., Kimura S., Yamamura Y., Kato H., Chrousos G.P., Wilder

R.L., Kondo M. (1995) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Colonic Mucosa in Patients with Ulcerative

Colitis. GUT 37:544-551.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Carney A., Ping J., Papanicolaou D.A., Karl M., Kastner D.L., Pras E., Chrousos G.P.

(1996) Carney Complex, a Familial Multiple Neoplasia and Lentiginosis Syndrome: Analysis of 11

Kindreds and Linkage to the Short Arm of Chromosome 2. J. Clin. Invest. 97:699-705.

  1. Karl M., Von Wichert G., Kempter E., Katz D.A., Reincke M., Monig H., Ali I.U., Stratakis C.A.,

Oldfield E.H., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M. (1996) Nelson’s Syndrome Associated with a Somatic

Frame Shift Mutation in the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:124-129.

  1. Ghizzoni L., Mastorakos G., Vottero A., Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P., Bernasconi S. (1996)

Spontaneous Cortisol and Growth Hormone Secretion Interactions in Patients with Nonclassic 21-

Hydroxylase Deficiency (NCCAH) and Control Children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:482-487.

  1. Latronico A.C., Anasti J., Arnhold I.J.P., Rapaport R., Mendonca B.B., Bloise W., de Castro M., Tsigos

G., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Testicular and Ovarian Resistance to Luteinizing Hormone Caused by

Homozygous Inactivating Mutations of the Luteinizing Hormone Receptor Gene. N. Engl. J. Med.

334:507-512.

  1. Johnson E.O., Decker L., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Distribution of Hippocampal

Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptor mRNA in a Glucocorticoid Resistant Nonhuman

Primate. Steroids 61:69-73.

  1. Petzke F., Heppner C., Mbulamberi D., Winkelmann W., Chrousos G.P., Allolio B., Reincke M. (1996)

Hypogonadism in Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness: Evidence for Acute and Chronic Dysfunction of the

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis. Fertility and Sterility 65:68-75.

  1. Mastorakos G., Scopa C.D., Kao L.C., Vryonidou A., Friedman T.C., Kattis D., Phenekos C., Rabin D.,

Chrousos G.P. (1996) Presence of Immunoreactive Corticotropin Releasing-Hormone (CRH) in Human

Endometrium. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:1046-1050.

  1. Dorn L.D., Burgess E.S., Dichek H.L., Putnam F., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1996) Thyroid Hormone

Concentrations in Depressed and Non-Depressed Adolescents: Group Differences and Behavioral

Relations. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 35:299-306.

  1. Leong, G.M., Mercado-Asis, L.B., Reynolds, J.C., Oldfield, E.H., Chrousos, G.P. (1996) The Effect of

Cushing Disease on Bone Mineral Density, Body Composition, Growth and Puberty: A Report of an

Identical Adolescent Twin Pair. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:1905-1911.

27

  1. Magiakou, M.A., Mastorakos, G., Rabin, D., Dubbert, B., Gold, P.W., Chrousos, G.P. (1996)

Hypothalamic Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Suppression during the Postpartum Period: Implications

for the Increase of Psychiatric Manifestations during this Time. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:1912-

1917.

  1. Karl M., Saviolakis G.A., Gravanis A., Chrousos G.P., Margioris A.N. (1996) The PC 12 Rat

Pheochromocytoma Cell Line Expresses the Prodynorphin Gene and Secretes the 8 kdalton Dynorphin

Product. Regulatory Peptides 61:99-104.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Rabin D., Margioris A.N., Dubbert B., Calogero A.E., Tsigos C.,

Munson P.J., Chrousos, G.P. (1996) The Maternal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Third

Trimester Human Pregnancy. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 44:419-428.

  1. Kalogeras K.T., Nieman L.K., Friedman T.C., Dopppman J.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Wilder

R.L., Gold P.W., Yanovski J.A. (1996) Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling in Normal Human Subjects

Reveals a Unilateral Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Induced Arginine Vasopressin Release

Associated with Ipsilateral Adrenal Corticotropin Secretion. J. Clin. Invest. 97:2045-2050

  1. Johnson E.O., Kamilaris T.C., Calogero A.E., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Effects of Early

Parenting on Growth and Development in a Small Primate. Pediatric Research 39:999-1005.

  1. Papanicolaou, D.A., Tsigos, C., Oldfield, E.H., Chrousos, G.P. (1996) Acute Glucocorticoid Deficiency

is Associated with Plasma Elevation of Interleukin-6: Does the Latter Participate in the Symptomatology

of the Steroid Withdrawal Syndrome and Adrenal Insufficiency? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:2303-

2306.

  1. Dorn L.D., Burgess E.S., Susman E.J., Von Eye A., DeBellis M.D. Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1996)

Response to Ovine Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in Depressed and Nondepressed Adolescents: Does

Gender Make a Difference? J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 35:764-773.

  1. Burgess E.S., Dorn L.D., Haaga D., Chrousos G.P (1996) Sociotropy, Autonomy, Stress and Depression

in Cushing Syndrome. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 184:362-367.

  1. Karl M., Lamberts S.W.J., Koper J.W., Katz, D.A., Huizenga N.E., Kino T., Haddad B.R., Hughes M.R.,

Chrousos G.P. (1996) Cushing’s Disease Preceded by Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance: Clinical

Consequences of a Novel, Dominant-negative Glucocorticoid Receptor Mutation. Proc. Assn. Amer.

Phys. 108:296-307.

  1. Friedman, T.C., Nieman, L.K., Yanovski, J.A., Doppman, J.L., Cutler, G.B. Jr., Oldfield, E.H., Gold,

P.W., Chrousos, G.P., Kalogeras, K.T. (1996) Inferior Petrosal Sinus Arginine Vasopressin

Concentrations in Normal Volunteers and Patients with Cushing Disease. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.

81:3068-3072.

  1. Yanovski, J.A., Zelitch-Yanovski, S.A., Friedman, T.C., Loh Peng, Y., Jayasvasti, V., Cutler, G.B. Jr.,

Chrousos, G.P. (1996) Etiology of the Differences in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Induced ACTH

Secretion of Black and White Women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:3307-3311.

  1. Makrigiannakis A., Zoumakis E., Margioris A.N., Stournaras C., Chrousos G.P., Gravanis A. (1996)

Regulation of the Promoter of the Human Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Gene in Transfected

Human Endometrial Cells. Neuroendocrinology 64:85-92.

  1. DeMarco, L., Stratakis, C.A., Boson, W.L., Jakbovitz, O., Carson, E., Andrade, L.M., Amaral, V.F.,

Rocha, J.L., Chrousos, G.P., Nordenskjöld, M., Friedman, E. (1996) Sporadic Cardiac Myxomas and

Tumors from Patients with Carney Complex are not Associated with Activating Mutations of the Gs

Gene. Hum. Genet. 98:185-188.

  1. Papanicolaou D.A., Petrides J.S., Tsigos C., Bina S., Kalogeras K.T., Wilder R., Gold P.W., Deuster

P.A., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Exercise Stimulates Interleukin-6 Secretion: Inhibition By Glucocorticoids

and Correlation With Catecholamines. Am. J. Physiol. E601-E605.

28

  1. Johnson E.O., Kamilaris T.C., Carter C.S., Calogero A.E., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1996) The

Biobehavioral Consequences of Psychogenic Stress in a Small, Social Primate (Callithrix jacchus

jacchus). Biol. Psychiatry 40:317-337.

  1. Castro M., Elliot S., Kino T., Bamberger C., Karl M., Webster E., Chrousos G.P. (1996) The Nonligand

Binding -Isoform of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (hGR): Tissue Levels, Mechanism of Action

and Potential Physiologic Role. Mol. Med. 2:597-607.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Yanovski S.Z., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Filmer K. (1996) Differences in the

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis of African American and Caucasian Girls. J. Pediatrics 129:130-

136.

  1. Cizza G., Nieman L.K., Doppman J.L., Passaro M.D., Czerwiec F.S., Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B. Jr.

(1996) Factitious Cushing Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:3573-3577.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Jenkins R.B., Pras E., Mitsiadis C.S., Raff S.B., Stalboerger P.G., Tsigos C., Carney A.,

Chrousos G.P. (1996) Cytogenetic and Mircosatellite Alterations in Tumors from Patients with the

Syndrome of Myxomas, Spotty Skin Pigmentation, and Endocrine Overactivity (Carney Complex). J.

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:3607-3614.

  1. Reincke M., Wachenfeld C., Mora P., Thumser A., Jaursch-Hancke C., Abdelhamid S., Chrousos G.P.,

Allolio B. (1996) p53 Mutations in Adrenal Tumors: Caucasian Patients Do Not Show the Exon 4 “Hot

Spot” Found in Taiwan. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 81:3636-3638.

  1. Michelson, D., Stratakis, C., Hill, L.Y., Reynolds, J., Galliven, E., Chrousos, G.P., Gold, P.W. (1996)

Bone Mineral Density is Decreased in Women With Depression. N. Engl. J. Med. 335:1176-1181.

  1. Elenkov I.J., Papanicolaou D.A., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Modulatory Effects of

Glucocorticoids and Catecholamines on Human Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-10 Production: Clinical

Implications. Proc. Assn. Am. Phys. 108:374-381.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Transient Elevation of Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels Following

Lithium Discontinuation. Eur. J. Peds. 155:939-941.

  1. Wong M., Ramayya M.S., Chrousos G.P., Driggers P.H., Parker K.L. (1996) Cloning and Sequencing

Analysis of the Human Gene Encoding Steroidogenic Factor 1. J. Mol. Endocrinol. 17:139-147.

  1. Webster E.L., Lewis D.B., Torpy D.J., Zachman E.K., Rice K.C., Chrousos G.P. (1996) In Vivo and In

Vitro Characterization of Antalarmin, a Nonpeptide Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Receptor

Antagonist: Suppression of Pituitary ACTH Release and Peripheral Inflammation. Endocrinology

137:5747-5750.

  1. Cizza G., Brady L.S., Esclapes M., Blackman M.R., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Age and Gender

Influence Basal and Stress-Modulated Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroidal Function in Fischer 344/N Rats.

Neuroendocrinology 64:440-448.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Orban Z., Burns A.L., Vottero A., Mitsiades C.S., Marx S.J., Abbassi V., Chrousos G.P.

(1996) Dideoxyfingerprinting (ddF) Analysis of the Type X Collagen Gene (COL10A1) and

Identification of a Novel Mutation (S671P) in a Kindred with Schmid Metaphyseal Chondrodysplasia.

Biochem. Mol. Med. 59:112-117.

  1. Friedman T.C., Mastorakos G., Newman T.D., Mullen N.M., Horton E.G., Costello R., Papadopoulos

N.M., Chrousos G.P.. (1996) Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Endogenous Hypercortisolism:

Shared Features with Metabolic Syndrome X and Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Endocrine

Journal 43:645-656.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Mitsiades N.S., Chrousos G.P., Margioris A.N. (1996) Dopamine Affects Rat Placenta

Opioids in ı Receptor- and Opioid Type-Specific Manner. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 315:53-58.

  1. Oberfield S.E., Nirenberg A., Allen J.C., Cohen H., Donahue B., Prasad V., Schiff R., Pang S., Ghavimi

F., David., Chrousos G.P., Sklar C. (1997) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function Following Cranial

29

Irradiation. Horm. Res. 47:9-16.

  1. Susman E., Dorn L., Inoff-Germain G., Nottelmann E., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Cortisol Reactivity,

Distress Behavior, and Behavioral and Psychological Problems in Young Adolescents: A Longitudinal

Perspective. J. Res. Adolescence 7:81-105.

  1. Dorn L.D., Burgess E.S., Friedman T.C., Dubbert B., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The

Longitudinal Course of Psychopathology in Cushing Syndrome After Correction of Hypercortisolism. J.

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:912-919.

  1. Sarlis N.J., Chrousos G.P., Doppman J.L., Carney J.A., Stratakis C.A. (1997) Primary Pigmented

Nodular Adrenocortical Disease: Reevaluation of a Patient with Carney Complex 27 Years After

Unilateral Adrenalectomy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1274-1278.

  1. 324. Crofford L.J., Kalogeras K.T., Mastorakos G., Magiakou M-A., Wells J., Kanik K.S., Gold P.W.,

Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L. (1997) Circadian Relationships Between Interleukin (IL)-6 and

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hormones: Failure of IL-6 to Cause Sustained Hypercortisolism in

Patients with Early Untreated Rheumatoid Arthritis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1279-1283.

  1. Licinio J., Mantzoros C., Negrão A.B., Cizza G., Wong M-L, Bongiorno P.B., Chrousos G.P., Karp B.,

Ellen C., Flier J.S., Gold P.W. (1997) Human Leptin Levels are Pulsatile and Inversely Related to

Pituitary-Adrenal Function. Nature Medicine 3:575-579.

  1. Taymans S.E., DeVries A.C., DeVries M.B., Nelson R.J., Friedman T.C., Castro M., Detera-Wadleigh

S., Carter C.S., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Prairie Vole (Microtus ochrogaster) as a Model of

Glucocorticoid Resistance. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 106:48-61.

  1. Vgontzas A.N., Papanicolaou D.A., Bixler E.O., Kales A., Tyson K., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Elevation

of Plasma Cytokines in Disorders of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness: Role of Sleep Disturbance and

Obesity. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1313-1316.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Zachman K., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Blood Pressure in Children and

Adolescents with Cushing Syndrome Before and After Surgical Cure. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.

82:1734-1738.

  1. Ramayya M.S., Zhou J., Kino T., Segars J.H., Bondy C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Steroidogenic

Factor-1 (hSF-1) mRNA Expression in Steroidogenic and Nonsteroidogenic Human Tissues: Northern

Blot and In Situ Hybridization Studies. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1799-1806.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Yanovski S.Z., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Differences in Corticotropin- Releasing

Hormone-Stimulated Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Before and After Weight Loss. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1874-1878.

  1. de Lange P., Koper J.W., Huizenga N.A.T.M., Brinkman A.O., de Jong F.H., Cato A.C.B., Karl M.,

Chrousos G.P., Lamberts S.W.J. (1997) Differential Hormone-Dependent Transactivation and

Transrepression by Naturally Occurring Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Variants. Mol.

Endocrinol. 11:1156-1164

  1. Premkumar A., Stratakis C.A., Shawker T.H., Papanicolaou D.A., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Testicular

Ultrasound in Carney Complex: Report of Three Cases. J. Clin. Ultrasound. 25:211-214.

  1. Petrides J.S., Gold P.W., Mueller G.P., Singh A., Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P., Deuster P.A. (1997)

Marked Differences in Functioning of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Between Groups of

Men. J. Appl. Physiol. 82:1979-1988.

  1. Reincke M., Beuschlein F., Latronico A-C., Arlt W., Chrousos G.P., Allolio B. (1997) Expression of

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Receptor mRNA in Human Adrenocortical Neoplasms: Correlation with

P450scc Expression. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxford) 46:619-626.

  1. Michelson D., Galliven E., Hill L., Demitrack M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P. (1997) Chronic Imipramine is

Associated with Diminished Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responsivity in Healthy Humans. J.

30

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:2601-2606.

  1. Cizza G., Lotsikas A.J., Licinio J., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Plasma Leptin Levels Do Not

Change in Patients with Cushing’s Disease Shortly After Correction of Hypercortisolism. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 82:2747-2750.

  1. Tsigos C., Papanicolaou D.A., Defensor R., Mitsiades C.S., Kyrou I., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Dose

Effects of Recombinant Human Interleukin-6 on Piuitary Hormone Secretion and Energy Expenditure.

Neuroendocrinology 66:54-62.

  1. Bamberger C.M., Bamberger A., Wald M., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M. (1997) Inhibition of

Mineralocorticoid Activity by the -Isoform of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor. J. Steroid Biochem.

and Mol. Biol. 60:43-50.

  1. Arnold I.J.P., Latronico A.C., Batista M.C., Carvalho F.M., Chrousos G.P., Mendonca B.B. (1997)

Ovarian Resistance to Luteinizing Hormone: A Novel Cause of Amenorrhea and Infertility. Fertil. Steril.

67:394-397.

  1. Reincke M., Mora P., Beuschlein F., Arlt W., Chrousos G.P., Allolio B. (1997) Deletion of the

Adrenocorticotropin Receptor Gene in Human Adrenocortical Tumors: Implications for Tumorigenesis.

  1. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:3054-3058.
  2. Vgontzas A.N., Bixler E.O., Papanicolaou D.A., Kales A., Stratakis C.A., Vela-Bueno A., Gold P.W.,

Chrousos G.P. (1997) REM Sleep Correlates with the Overall Activities of the Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis and Sympathetic System in Healthy Humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.

82:3278-3280.

  1. Ghizzoni L., Mastorakos G., Vottero A., Bareca A., Furlini M., Cesarone A., Ferrari B., Chrousos G.P.,

Bernasconi S. (1997) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Inhibits Steroid Biosynthesis by

Cultured Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells in a CRH and Interleukin-1 Receptor -Mediated Fashion.

Endocrinology 138:4806-4811.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Friedman T.C., Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B. Jr., Doppman J.L., Kalogeras

K.T. (1997) Inferior Petrosal Sinus AVP in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome. Clin. Endocrinol.

47:199-206.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Sarlis N.J., Berrettini W.H., Badner J.A., Chrousos G.P., Gershon E.S., Detera- Wadleigh

S.D. (1997) Lack of Linkage Between the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Gene and Bipolar

Affective Disorder. Mol. Psychiatry 2:483-485.

  1. Ghizzoni L., Mastorakos G., Street M.E., Vottero A., Mazzardo G., Vanelli M., Chrousos G.P.,

Bernasconi S. (1997) Spontaneous Thyrotropin and Cortisol Secretion Interactions in Patients with

Nonclassical 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency and Control Children. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:3677-

3683.

  1. Leung D.Y.M., Hamid Q., Vottero A., Szefler S.J., Surs W., Minshall E., Chrousos G.P., Klemm D.J.

(1997) Association of Glucocorticoid Insensitivity with Increased Expression of Glucocorticoid

Receptor. J. Exp. Med. 186:1567-1574.

  1. Tsigos C., Papanicolaou D.A., Kyrou I., Defensor R., Mitsiadis C.S., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Dose-

Dependent Effects of Recombinant Human Interleukin-6 on Glucose Regulation. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 82:4167-4170.

  1. Stratakis C., Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Oldfield E., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Thyroid Function in

Children with Cushing Disease Before and After Transsphenoidal Surgery. J. Peds. 131:905-909.

  1. Theoharides T.C., Singh L.K., Boucher W., Pang X., Letourneau R., Webster E., Chrousos G.P. (1998)

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Induces Skin Mast Cell Degranulation and Increased Vascular

Permeability, A Possible Explanation for Its Proinflammatory Effects. Endocrinology 139:403-413.

  1. Bornstein S.R., Licinio J., Tauchnitz R., Engelmann L., Negrão A.B., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1998)

31

Plasma Leptin Levels Are Increased in Survivors of Acute Stress: Associated Loss of Diurnal Rhythm

in Cortisol and Leptin Secretion. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88:280-283.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Cutler G.B., Chrousos G.P., Nieman L.K. (1998) The Dexamethasone-Suppressed

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Test Differentiates Mild Cushing’s Disease from Normal

Physiology. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:348-352.

  1. Papanicolaou D.A., Yanovski J.A., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Nieman L.K. (1998) A Single

Midnight Serum Cortisol Measurement Distinguishes Cushing’s Syndrome from Pseudo-Cushing States.

  1. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:1163-1167.
  2. Stratakis C.A., Vottero A., Brodie A., Kirschner L.S., DeAtkine D., Lu Q., Yue W., Mitsiades C.S., Flor

A.W., Chrousos G.P. (1998) The Aromatase Excess Syndrome is Associated with Feminization of Both

Sexes and Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Aberrant P450arom Gene Transcription. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 83:1348-1357.

  1. Bornstein S.R., Webster E.L., Torpy D.J., Richman S.J., Mitsiades N., Igel M., Lewis D.B., Rice K.C.,

Joost H.G., Tsokos M., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Chronic Effects of a Nonpeptide Corticotropin- Releasing

Hormone Type 1-Receptor Antagonist on Pituitary-Adrenal Function, and Body Weight and Metabolic

Regulation. Endocrinology 139:1546-1555.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Nieman L.K., Doppman J.L., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L., Gold P.W., Kalogeras K.T.

(1998) Plasma Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in the Inferior Petrosal Sinuses of Healthy

Volunteers, Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome, and Patients with Pseudo-Cushing States. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 83:1485-1488.

  1. Gragerov A., Kino T., Ilyina-Gragerova G., Chrousos G.P., Pavlakis G.N. (1998) HHR23A, the Human

Homologue of the Yeast Repair Protein RAD23 Interacts Specifically with Vpr Protein and Prevents Cell

Cycle Arrest But Not the Transcriptional Effects of Vpr. Virology 245:323-330.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Mastorakos G., Mitsiades N.S., Mitsiades C.S., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Skin

Manifestations of Cushing Disease in Children and Adolescents Before and After the Resolution of

Hypercortisolemia. Ped. Dermatol. 15:253-258.

  1. Willenberg H.S., Stratakis C.A., Marx C., Ehrhart-Bornstein M., Chrousos G.P., Bornstein S.R. (1998)

Aberrant Interleukin-1 Receptors in a Cortisol-Secreting Adrenal Adenoma Causing Cushing’s

Syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:27-31.

  1. Vgontzas A.N., Tsigos C., Kales A., Stratakis C.A., Zachman K., Bixler e.O., Velo-Bueno A., Chrousos

G.P. (1998) Chronic Insomnia and Activity of the Stress System: A Preliminary Study. J.

Psychosomatic Res. 45:21-31.

  1. Elenkov I.J., Webster E.L., Papanicolaou D.A., Fleisher T.A., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L. (1998)

Histamine Potently Suppresses Human Interleukin-12 and Stimulates Interleukin-10 Production via H2

Receptors. J. Immunol. 161:2586-2593.

  1. Torpy D.J., Gordon R.D., Lin J-P., Huggard P.R., Taymans S.E., Stowasser M., Chrousos G.P., Stratakis

C.A. (1998) Familial Hyperaldosteronism Type-II: Description of a Large Kindred and Exclusion of the

Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2) Gene. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:3214-3218.

  1. Torpy D.J., Tsigos C., Lotsikas A.J., Defensor R., Chrousos G.P., Papanicolaou D.A. (1998) Acute and

Delayed Effects of a Single-Dose Injection of Interleukin-6 on Thyroid Function in Healthy Humans.

Metabolism 47:1289-1293.

  1. Chan E.C., Falconer J., Madsen G., Read M., Chrousos G.P., Webster E.L., Rice K., Smith R.A. (1998)

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Type I Receptor Antagonist Delays Parturition in Sheep.

Endocrinology139:3357-3360.

  1. Longui C.A., Vottero A., Harris A.G., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Plasma Cortisol Responses After

Intramuscular ACTH 1-24 in Healthy Men. Metabolism 47:1419-1422.

32

  1. Glasow A., Haidan A., Hilbers U., Breidert M., Gillespie J., Scherbaum W.A., Chrousos G.P.,

Bornstein S.R. (1998) Expression of Ob Receptor in Normal Human Adrenals: Differential Regulation

of Adrenocortical and Adrenomedullary Function by Leptin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:4459-4466.

  1. Torpy D.J., Bornstein S.R., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Leptin and Interleukin-6 in Sepsis. Horm. Metab.

Res. 30:726-729.

  1. Willenberg H.S, Bornstein S.R., Dumser T., Ehrhart-Bornstein M., Barocka A., Chrousos G.P.,

Scherbaum W.A. (1998) Morphological Changes in Adrenals From Victims of Suicide in Relation to

Altered Apoptosis. Endocrine Research, 24:963-967.

  1. Deuster P.A., Petrides J.S., Singh A., Lucci E.G., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1998) High Intensity

Exercise Promotes Escape of ACTH and Cortisol From Suppression by Dexamethasone: Sexually

Dimorphic Responses. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83:3332-3338.

  1. Kino T., Gragerov A., Kopp J.B., Stauber R.H., Pavlakis G.N., Chrousos, G.P. (1999) The HIV-1

Virion-associated Protein Vpr is a Coactivator of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor. J. Exp. Med.

89:51-61.

  1. Deak T., Nguyen K.T., Ehrlich A.L., Watkins L.R., Spencer R.L., Maier S.F., Licinio J., Wong M-L,

Chrousos G.P., Webster E., Gold P.W. (1999) The Impact of the Nonpeptide CRH Antagonist

Antalarmin on Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress. Endocrinology. 140:79-86.

  1. Heino M., Scott H.S., Chen Q., Peterson P., Maenpaa U., Papasavvas M.P., Mittaz L., Barras C., Rossier

C., Chrousos, G. P., Stratakis, C.A., Nagamine K., Kudoh J., Shimizu N., Maclaren N., Antonarakis

S.E., and Krohn K. (1999) Mutation Analyses of North American APS-1 Patients. Human Mutation 13:

69-74.

  1. Shahidi H., Vottero A., Stratakis, C.A., Taymans, S.E., Karl M., Longui, C.A., Chrousos, G.P..

Daughaday. W.H., Gregory, S.A., Plate, J.M.D. (1999) Imbalanced expression of the glucocorticoid

receptor isoforms in cultured lymphocytes from a patient with systemic glucocorticoid resistance and

chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 254:559-565.

  1. Vottero A, Stratakis CA, Ghizzoni L, Longui CA, Karl M., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Androgen receptormediated

Hypersensitivity to Androgens in Women with Nonhyperandrogenic Hirsutism: Skewing of Xchromosome

Inactivation. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84:1091-1095.

  1. Tataranni P.A., Cizza G., Snitker S., Gucciardo F., Lotsikas A., Chrousos G.P., Ravussin E., (1999)

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis and Sympathetic Nervous System Activities in Pima Indians and

Caucasians. Metabolism. 48:395-399.

  1. Torpy, D. J., Chen, C., Mullen, N., Doppman, J. L., Carrasquillo, J., Chrousos G.P., Nieman, L. K.

(1999) Lack of Utility of 111In-Pentetreotide Scintigraphy in Localizing Ectopic ACTH Producing

Tumors: Follow-up of 18 Patients., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84:1186-1192.

  1. Singh A., Papanicolaou D.A., Lawrence L.L., Howell E.A., Chrousos G.P., Deuster P.A. (1999)

Neuroendocrine Responses to Exhaustive Running in Women. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 31:536-542.

  1. Torpy D.J., Webster E.L., Zachman E.K., Aguilera G., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Urocortin and

Inflammation: Confounding Effects of Hypotension on Measures of Inflammation.

Neuroimmunomodulation 6:182-186.

  1. Susman E.J., Schmeelk K.H., Worrall B.K., Granger D.A., Ponirakis A., Chrousos G.P. (1999)

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Cortisol: Longitudinal Associations with Depression and

Antisocial Behavior in Pregnant Adolescents. J. Amer. Acad. Chid and Adol. Psychiatry 38:460-467.

  1. Bottner A., Eisenhofer G., Torpy D.J., Ehrhart-Bornstein M., Keiser H.R., Chrousos G.P., Bornstein

S.R. (1999) Lack of Leptin Suppression in Response to Hypersecretion of Catecholamines in

Pheochromocytoma Patients. (Preliminary Report) Metabolism 48:543-545.

  1. Hamid Q.A., Wenzel S.E., Hauk P.J., Tsicopoulos A., Wallaert B., Lafitte J-J., Chrousos G.P., Szefler

33

S.J., Leung D.Y.M. (1999) Increased Glucocorticoid Receptor-beta in Airway Cells of

Glucocorticoid- insensitive Asthma Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159:1600-1604.

  1. Dorn L.D., Nottelmann E., Susman E.J., Inoff-Germain G., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P. (1999)

Variability in Hormone Concentrations and Self-reported Menstrual Histories in Young Adolescents:

Menarche as an Integral Part of a Developmental Process. J Youth & Adolescence 28:283-303.

  1. Yanovski J.A., Miller K.D., Kino T., Friedman T.C., Chrousos G.P., Tsigos C., Falloon J. (1999)

Endocrine and Metabolic Evaluation of HIV-infected Patients with Evidence of Protease Inhibitor

Associated Lipodystrophy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 84:1925-1931.

  1. Orban, Z., Remaley, A.T., Sampson, M., Trajanoski, Z., Chrousos G.P. (1999) the Differential Effect of

Food Intake and -Adrenergic Stimulation of Adipose-Derived Hormones and Cytokines in Man. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 84:2126-2133.

  1. Singh, A., Petrides, J. S., Gold, P. W., Chrousos G.P., Deuster, P.A. (1999) Differential Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Reactivity to Psychological and Physical Stress, J. Clin. Endocrinol. 84:1944-

1948.

  1. Schmeelk, K. H., Granger, D. A., Susman, E. J., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Maternal Depression and Risk for

Postpartum Complications in Adolescents: Role of Prenatal Corticotrophin-releasing Hormone and

Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist., Behaviorial Medicine, 25:88-94.

  1. Arai, K., Zachman, K., Shibasaki, T., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Polymorphisms of Amiloride Sensitive

Sodium Channel Subunits in Five Sporadic Cases of Pseudohypoaldosteronism: Do They Have

Pathologic Potential? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84:2434-2437.

  1. Franchimont, D., Louis, E., Dupont, P., Vrindts-Gevaert, Y., Dewe, W., Chrousos G.P., Geenen, V.,

Belaiche, J. (1999) Decreased Corticosensitivity in Quiescent Crohn’s Disease An Ex Vivo Study Using

Whole Blood Cell Cultures, Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 44:1208-1215.

  1. Wong, M., Webster, E. L., Spokes, H. Phu, P., Ehrhart-Bornstein, M., Bornstein, S., Park, C., Rice, K.

C., Chrousos G.P., Licinio, J., Gold, P. W. (1999) Chronic Administration of the Non-Peptide CRH Type

1 Receptor Antagonist Antalarmin Does Not Blunt Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Responses to

Acute Immobilization Stress, Life Sciences, 65:53-58.

  1. Franchimont, D. Martens, H. Habelstein, M., Louis, E., Dewe, W., Chrousos G.P., Belaiche, J., Geenen,
  2. (1999) Tumor Necrosis Factor Decreases, and Interleukin-10 Increases, the Sensitivity of Human

Monocytes to Dexamethasone: Potential Regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor, J. Clinical

Endocrinology & Metabolism, 84:2834-2839.

  1. Vgontzas, A. N., Papanicolaou, D. A., Bixler, E. O., Lotsikas, A., Zachman, K., Kales, A., Prolo, P.,

Wong, M., Licinio, J., Gold, P. W., Hermida, R. C., Mastorakos, G., Chrousos G.P., (1999) Circadian

Interleukin-6 Secretion and Quality and Depth of Sleep, J. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism,

84:2603-2607.

  1. Vgontzas, A. N., Mastorakos, G., Bixler, E. O., Kales, A., Gold, P. W., Chrousos G.P., (1999) Sleep

Deprivation Effects on the Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Growth Axes: Potential

Clinical Implications, Clinical Endocrinol. (Oxf.), 51:205-215.

  1. Macrigiannakis, A., Margioris, A., Chrousos G.P., Stounaras, C., Gravanis, A., (1999) The Decidualizing

Effect of Progesterone May Involve Direct Transcriptional Activation of Corticotropin Releasing

Hormone (CRH) from Human Endometrial Stroma Cells, Molecular Human Reproduction, 5:789-796.

  1. Kino T., Nordeen S.K., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Conditional Modulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor

Activities by CREB-binding Protein (CBP) and p300. J. Steroid Biochem. Molec. Biol., 70:15-25.

  1. Stratakis, C. A., Sarlis, N., Kirschner, L. S., Carney, J. A., Doppman, J. L., Nieman, L. K., Chrousos

G.P., Papanicolaou, D. A., (1999) Paradoxic Response to Dexamethasone in the Diagnosis of Primary

Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease, Ann. Intern. Med., 131:585-591.

34

  1. Wolkersdorfer, G.W., Lohmann, T. Schroder, S., Marx, C., Pfeiffer, R., Stahl, H-D., Chrousos G.P.,

Bornstein, S.R., (1999) Lymphocytes Stimulate Dehydroepiandrosterone Production Through Direct

Cellular Contact with Adrenal Zona Reticularis Cells: A Novel Mechanism of Immune-Endocrine

Interaction, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84:4220-4227.

  1. Koch, C. A., Azumi, N., Furlong, M. A., Jha, R. C., Kehoe, T. E., Trowbridge, C. H., O’Dorisio, T. M.,

Chrousos G.P., (1999) Clement, S. C., CLINICAL CASE SEMINAR: Carcinoid Syndrome Caused by an

Atypical Carcinoid of the Uterine Cervix, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84:4208-4213.

  1. Torpy, D. J., Webster, E. L., Zachman, E. K., Aguilera, G., Chrousos G.P., (1999) Urocortin and

Inflammation: Confounding Effects of Hypotension on Measures of Inflammation,

Neuroimmunomodulation, 6:182-186.

  1. Tsigos C., Papanicolaou D., Kyrou I., and Chrousos G. P. (1999) Dose Effects of Recombinant Human

Interleukin-6 on the Pituitary-testicular Axis. J. Interferon and Cytokine Res. 19:1271-6

  1. Link, A. A., Kino, T. , Worth, J. A., McGuire, J. L., Crane, M. L., Chrousos G.P., Wilder, R. L.,

Elenkov, I. J., (2000) Ligand-Activation of the Adenosine A2a Receptors Inhibits IL-12 Production by

Human Monocytes, J. Immunology, 164:436-442.

  1. Orban, Z., Mitsiades, N., Burke, Jr., T. R., Tsokos, M., Chrousos G.P., (2000) Caffeic Acid Phenethyl

Ester Induces Leukocyte Apoptosis, Modulates Nuclear Factor-Kappa B and Suppresses Acute

Inflammation, Neuroimmunomodulation, 7:99-105.

  1. Wong, M-L., Kling, M. A., Munson, P. J., Listwak, S., Licinio, J., Prolo, P., Karp, B., McCutcheon, I.

E., Geracioti, Jr. T. D., DeBellis, M. D., Rice, K. C., Goldstein, D. S., Veldhuis, J. D., Chrousos G.P.,

Oldfield, E. H., McCann, S. M., Gold, P. W. (2000), Pronounced and Sustained Central

Hypernoradrenergic Function in Major Depression with Melancholic Features: Relation to

Hypercortisolism and Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, USA, 97:325-330.

  1. Franchimont D., Galon J., Gadina M., Visconti R., Zhou Y., Aringer M., Frucht DM., Chrousos G.P.,

O’Shea JJ., (2000) Inhibition of Th1 Immune Response by Glucocorticoids: Dexamethasone Selectively

Inhibits IL-12-induced Stat-4 Phosphorylation in T Lymphocytes, J. Immunol, Feb 15; 164(4):1768-74.

  1. Kanik S., Chrousos G.P., Schumacher H. R, Crane M L., Yarboro C H., Wilder R L., (2000), ACTH,

Glucocorticoid and Androgen Secretion in Patients with New Onset Synovitis/Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Relations with Indices of Inflammation, J. Clinical Endocrinol. Metab. 85: 1461-1466

  1. Vgontzas, A.N., Papanicolaou, D. A., Bixler, E. O., Hopper, K., Lotsikas, A., Kales, A., Chrousos G.P.

(2000), Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness and Fatigue: Relations With Visceral Obesity, Insulin

Resistance, and Hypercytokinemia, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 85:1151-1158.

  1. Pathomvanich, A., Merke, D.P., Chrousos G.P., (2000) Early Puberty: A Cautionary Tale (Commentary);

Pediatrics, 105:115-116.

  1. Torpy D.J., Papanicolaou D.A., Lotsikas A. J., Wilder R.L., Chrousos, G.P., Pillemer S.R., (2000)

Responses of the Sympathetic Nervous System and the Hypothalamic-Putuitary-Adrenal Axis to

Interleukin-6 in fibromyalgia, Arthritis & Rheumatism ; 43 (4): 872-880.

  1. Deuster P.A., Petrides J.S., Singh A., Chrousos G.P., Poth M.L., (2000) Endocrine Response to High-

Intensity Exercise: Dose-Dependent Effects of Dexamethasone, J. of Clinical Endocrinology and Metab.,

85:1066-1073.

  1. Hsin L-W, Webster E.L., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Eckelman W.C., Contoreggi C., Rice K.C., (2000)

Synthesis and Biological Activity of Fluoro-Substituted Pyrrolo [2,3-d]pyrimidines: the Development of

Potential Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Agents for Corticotropin- Releasing Hormone type 1

Receptor, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 10:707-710.

  1. Kanik K.S., Chrousos G.P., Schumacher H.R., Crane M.L., Yarboro C.H., Wilder R.L., (2000)

Adrenocorticotrophin, Glucocorticoid, and Androgen Secretion in Patients with New Onset

Synovitis/Rheumatoid Arthritis: Relations with Indices of Inflammation, J. of Clinical Endocrinology

35

and Metab., 85:1461-1466.

  1. Bornstein, S.R., Asab, M. A., Glasow, A., Path, G., Hauner, H., Tsokos, M., Chrousos G.P., Scherbaum,
  2. A., (2000) Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Localization of Leptin and Leptin Receptor in

Human White Adipose Tissue and Differentiating Human Adipose Cells in Primary Culture, Diabetes,

49:532-538.

  1. Willenberg, H.S., Bornstein, S.R., Hiroi, N., Path, G., Goretzki, P.E., Scherbaum, W.A., Chrousos G.P.,

(2000) Effects of a Novel Corticotropin-Releasing -Hormone Receptor Type I Antagonist on Human

Adrenal Function, Molec. Psychiatry., 5:137-141.

  1. Habib K.E., Weld K.P., Rice K.C., Pushkas J., Champoux M., Listwak S., Webster E.L., Atkinson

A.,Schulkin J., Contoreggi C., Chrousos G.P., McCann S.M., Suomi S.J., Higley J.D., Gold P.W (2000)

Oral Administration of a CRH Receptor Antagonist Significantly Attenuates Behavioral,

Neuroendocrine, and Autonomic Responses to Stress in Primates, Proc. Ntl. Acad. Sci. USA., 10:1073-

1079.

  1. Berga, S.L., Loucks-Daniels, T.L., Adler, L.J., Chrousos, G.P., Cameron, J.L., Matthews, K.A., Marcus,

M.D. (2000) Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Women with Functional

Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Am J Obstet Gynecol, 182:776-784.

  1. Hsin L-W, Webster E.L., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Eckelman W.C., Contoreggi C., Rice K.C., (2000)

Synthesis of [3H] LWH-154: a Potent Radioligand for Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Type 1

Receptor, J. Labeled Compounds and Pharmaceuticals, 43:899-908.

  1. Bornstein, S.R., Wolkersdorfer, G.W., Preas, H.L., Chrousos G.P., Suffredini, A.F., (2000) Brief Report:

Plasma Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Levels During Acute Experimental Endotoxemia and

Antiinflammatory Therapy in Humans, Critical Care Med, 28(6):2103-2106.

  1. Nawab, S.S., Miller, C.S., Dale, J.K., Greenberg, B.D., Friedman, T.C., Chrousos, G.P., Straus,

S.E.,Rosenthal, N.E. (2000) Self-reported sensitivity to chemical exposures in five clinical populations

and healthy controls. Psychiatry Research 95:67-74.

  1. Doppman, J.L., Chrousos, G.P., Papanicolaou, D.A., Stratakis, C.A., Alexander, H.R., Nieman, L.K.

(2000) Adrenocorticotropin-independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia: An Uncommon Cause of

Primary Adrenal Hypercortisolism. Radiology, 216(3):797-802.

  1. Bottner, A., Haidan, A., Eisenhofer, G., Kristensen, K., Castle, A.L., Scherbaum, W.A., Schneider, H.,

Chrousos, G.P., Bornstein, S.R. (2000) Increased Body Fat mass and Suppression of Circulating Leptin

Levels in Response to Hypersecretion of Epinephrine in Phenylethanolamine-N-Methyltransferase

(PNMT)-Overexpressing Mice. Endocrinology, 141(11):4239-4246.

  1. Merke, D.P., Chrousos, G.P., Eisenhofer, G., Weise, M., Keil, M.F., Rogol, A.D., Van Wyk, J.J.,

Bornstein, S.R. (2000) Adrenomedullary Dysplasia and Hypofunction in Patients with Classic 21-

Hydroxylase Deficiency. N Engl J Med. 343(19):1362-1368.

  1. Huang, S.C., Koch, C.A., Vortmeyer, A.O., Pack, S.D., Lichtenauer, U.D., Mannan, P., Lubensky, I.A.,

Chrousos, G.P., Gagel, R.F., Pacak, K., Zhuang, Z. (2000) Duplication of the Mutant RET Allele in

Trisomy 10 or Loss of the Wild-Type Allele in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2-associated

Pheochromocytomas. Cancer Research. 60:6223-6226.

  1. Franchimont, E., Bouma, G., Galon, J., Wolkersdorfer, G.W., Haidan, A., Chrousos, G.P, Bornstein,

S.R.(2000) Adrenal Cortical Activation in Murine Colitis. Gastroenterology, 119:1560-1568.

  1. Bornstein, S.R., Tian, H, Haidan, A., Bottner, A., Hiroi, N., Eisenhofer, G., McCann, S.M., Chrousos,.P.,

Roffler-Tarlov, S. (2000) Deletion of Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene Reveals Functional Interdependence

of Adrenocortical and Chromaffin Cell System in Vivo., PNAS, 97:14742-14747.

  1. Longui, C.A., Vottero, A., Adamson, P.C., Cole, D.E., Kino, T., Monte, O., Chrousos, G.P. (2000) Low

Glucocorticoid Receptor Alpha/beta Ratio in T-cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Horm. Metab. Res.,

32:401-406.

36

  1. Garcia-Borreguero, D., Wehr, T.A., Larrosa, O., Granizo, J.J., Hardwick, D., Chrousos, G.P., and

Friedman, T.C (2000) Glucocorticoid Replacement is Permissive for Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and

Sleep Consolidation in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85:4201-4206.

  1. Hope, P.J., Tumbull, H., Farr, S., Morley, J.E., Rice, K.C., Chrousos, G.P., Torpy, D.J., Wittert, G.H.

(2000) Peripheral Administration of CRF and Urocortin: Effects on Food Intake and the HPA axis in the

Marsupial Sminthopsis crassicaudata. Peptides, 21:669-677.

  1. Mitsiades, N., Poulaki, V., Tseleni-Balafouta, S., Chrousos, G.P., Koutras, D.A. (2000) Fas Ligand

Expression in Thyroid Follicular Cells from Patients with Thionamide-treated Graves’ Disease. Thyroid,

10:527-532.

  1. Hauk PJ, Hamid QA, Chrousos GP, Leung DY (2000) Induction of Corticosteroid Insensitivity by

Microbial Superantigens. J All Clin Immunol 105: 782-787

  1. Merke, D.P., Cho, D., Calis, K.A., Keil, M.F., Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Hydrocortisone Suspension and

Hydrocortisone Tablets Are not Bioequivalent in the Treatment of Children with Congenital Adrenal

Hyperplasia.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 86: 441-445.

  1. Tian X., Hsin L-W., Webster E. L., Contoreggi C., Chrousos G P., Gold P. W., Habib K., Ayala A.,

Eckelman W.C., Jacobson, A.E. Rice K.C.(2001) The Development of a Potential Single Photon

Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Imaging Agent for the Corticotropin-releasing Hormone

Receptor Type 1. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 11: 331-333

  1. Vgontzas, A.N., Bixler, E.O, Wittman, A.M., Zachman, K., Lin, H.M., Vela-Bueno, A., Kales, A.,

Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Middle-Aged Men Show Higher Sensitivity of Their Sleep to the Arousing

Effects of Corticotropin-releasing Hormone than Younger Men: Clinical Implications., J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 86: 1489-95

  1. Vgontzas, A.N., Legro, R.S., Bixler, E.O., Grayev, A., Kales, A., Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Polycystic

Ovary Syndrome is Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Daytime Sleepiness: Role of Insulin

Resistance.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.86: 517-520.

  1. Strickland I., Kisich K., Hauk P.J., Vottero A., Chrousos G.P., Klemm D.J., Leung D.Y.M. (2001) High

Constitutive Glucocorticoid Receptor Beta in Human Neutrophils Enables Them to Reduce Their

Spontaneous Rate of Cell Death in Response to Corticosteroids. J. Exp. Med.193: 585-593

  1. Path, G., , S.R., Gurniak, M., Chrousos, G.P., Scherbaum, W.A., Hauner, H. (2001) Human Breast

Adipocytes Express Interleukin (IL)-6 and its Receptor System: Increased IL-6 Production by beta-

Adrenergic Activation and Effects of IL-6 on Adipocyte Function. J Clin Endocrinol. Metab.86: 2281-

2288

  1. Erickson K., Thorsen P., Chrousos G., Grigoriadis D.E., Khongsaly O., McGregor J., Schulkin J. (2001)

Preterm Birth: Associated Neuroendocrine, Medical, and Behavioral Risk Factors. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab.86: 2544-2552

  1. Hiroi, N., Chrousos, G.P., Abu-Asab, M., Bonat, S., Lafferty, A., White, A., Bornstein, S.R. (2001)

Adrenocortical-Pituitary Hybrid Tumor Causing Cushing’s Syndrome. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.86:

2631-2637

  1. Cizza, G., Dorn, L.D., Lotsikas, A., Sereika, S., Rotenstein, D., Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Circulating

Plasma Leptin and IGF-1 Levels in Girls with Premature Adrenarche: Potential Implications of a

Preliminary Study. Hormone and Metabolic Research 33:148-143

  1. Kraft M., Hamid O., Chrousos G., Martin R.J., Leung D. (2001) Decreased Steroid Responsiveness at

Night: Is the Macrophage Responsible? Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 163: 1219-1225

  1. Poulaki, V., Mitsiades, N., Mastorakos, G., Caspi, R.R., Chrousos, G.P., and Bouzas, E. (2001) Fas/Fas

ligand-associated Apoptosis in Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis in Rodents: Role of

Proinflammatory Corticotropin-releasing Hormone. Exp. Eye Res.72:623-629

37

  1. Schneider, R., Bornstein, S.R., Chrousos, G.P., Boxberger, S., Ehniger, G., Breidert, M. (2001) Leptin

mediates a proliferative response in human gastric mucosa cells with functional receptor. Horm Metab

Res. 33(1):1-6.

  1. Bernardini, R., Johnson, E.O., Kamilaris, T., Chiarenza, A., Cantarella, G., Calogero, A.E., Lempereur ,

L., Chrousos, G.P., Giuffrida, R., Gold, P.W. (2001) Increased ACTH and cortisol secretion after

interleukin-alpha injection in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). Life Sci. 68(14):1657-

65.

  1. Baker, D. G., Ekhator, N. N., Kasckow, J. W., Hill, K. K., Zoumakis, E., Dashevsky, B. A., Chrousos,
  2. P., and Geracioti, T. D.(2001) Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 concentrations in

posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuroimmunomodulation. 9(4), 209-217.

  1. Kuperman H., Damiani D., Chrousos G.P., Dichtchenian V., Chrousos G.P., Della Manna T., Filho V.

O., Setian N. (2001) Evaluation of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in Children with Leukemia

before and after 7 Weeks of High Dose Glucocorticoid Therapy. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86: 2993-

2996

  1. Kraft M. Hamid Q. Chrousos G.P., Martin RJ, Leung DY. (2001) Decreased steroid responsiveness at

night in nocturnal asthma. Is the macrophage responsible? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 163: 1219-25.

  1. Ghizzoni L. Barreca A, Mastorakos G. Furlini M., Vottero A. Ferrari B., Chrousos GP, Bernasconi S.

(2001) Leptin inhibits steroid biosynthesis by human granulosa-lutein cells. Horm Metab Res. 33 : 323-

8.

  1. Vgontzas A., Bixler E.O., Lin H.-M., Prolo P., Mastorakos G., Vela-Bueno A., Kales A., Chrousos

G.P.(2001) Chronic Insomnia is Associated with Nyctohemeral Activation of the Hypothalamicpituitary-

adrenal Axis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.86: 3787-3794

  1. Hiroi N., Wong M.L., Licinio J., Park C., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Bornstein S.R. (2001) Expression

of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptors Type 1 and Type 2 mRNA in Suicide Victims and

Controls. Mol. Psychiatry 6: 540-546

  1. Kohno M., Kawahito Y., Tsubouchi Y., Hashiramoto A., Yamada R., Inoue K., Kusaka Y., Kubo T.,

Elenkov I. J, Chrousos G.P., Kondo M., and Sano H. (2001) Urocortin Expression in Synovium of

Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Osteoarthritis: Relation to Inflammatory Activity. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab.86:4344-4352

  1. Makrigiannakis A., Zoumakis E., Kalantaridou S., Coutifaris C., Coukos, G., Rice K., Gravanis, A. and

Chrousos G. P. (2001) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) Promotes Blastocyst Implantation and

Early Maternal Tolerance. Nature Immunology 2:1018-24

  1. Abad V., Chrousos G.P., Reynolds J., Nieman L., Hill S., Weinstein R., Leong G.(2001) Glucocorticoid

Excess during Adolescence Leads to a Major, Persistent Deficit in Bone Mass and Increase in Central

Body Fat. J. Bone and Min. Research. 16; 1879-85

  1. Elenkov I. J., Wilder R. L., Bakalov V. K., Link A.A., Dimitrov M., Fisher S., Crane M., Kanik K.,

Chrousos G. P. (2001) Interleukin 12, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Hormonal Changes during Late

Pregnancy and Early Postpartum: Implications for Autoimmune Disease Activity during These Times. J.

Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86: 4933-8

  1. Kino T., Stauber R.H., Resau J. H., Pavlakis, G., Chrousos G. P. (2001) Pathologic Human

Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Mutant Has a Transdominant Negative Effect on the Wild Type GR by

Inhibiting Its Translocation into the Nucleus: Importance of the Ligand-binding Domain for Intracellular

GR Trafficking. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86: 5600-8

  1. Koch, C.A., Vortmeyer, A.O., Huang, S.C., Moley, J.F., Azumi, N., Chrousos, G.P., Gagel, R.F.,

Zhuang, S., Pacak, K. (2001) Allelic imbalance of the mutant and wild-type RET allele in MEN 2Aassociated

medullary thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene 20:7809-11

38

  1. Maurer M, Trajanoski Z, Hiroi N, Frey G, Galom J, Willenberg HS Gold PW, Chrousos GP,

Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR (2001) Differential gene expression profile of glucocorticoids,

testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in human cells. Hormone Metab. Res. 33:691-695

  1. Galon J., Franchimont D., Hiroi N., Boettner A., Ehrhart-Bornstein M., Chrousos G.P., Bornstein

S.(2002) Gene Profiling Reveals Unknown Enhancing and Suppressive Actions of Glucocorticoids on

Immune Cells. FASEB J.16: 61-71

  1. Kino T., Slobodskaya O., Pavlakis, N. and Chrousos G. P. (2002) Nuclear Receptor Coactivator p160

Proteins Enhance the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Long Terminal Repeat Promoter by

Bridging Promoter Bound Factors and the Tat/pTEFı Complex. J. Biol. Chem., on-line release 11/01/01

277(4):2396-405.

  1. Hsin L-W., Tian X., Webster E.L., Coop A., Caldwell T. C., Jacobson A.E., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W.,

Habib, K.H., Ayala A., Eckelman W.C., Contoreggi C., Rice. K. (2002) CRHR1 Receptor Binding and

Lipophilicity of Pyrrolopyrimidines, Potential Nonpeptide Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Type 1

Receptor Antagonists. Biorg. Med. Chem. 10:175-183

  1. Koch CA, Huang SC, Zhuang Z, Stolle C., Azumi N, Chrousos GP, Vortmeyer AO, Pacak K (2002)

Somatic VHL Gene Deletion and Point Mutation in MEN 2A-associated Pheochromocytoma. Oncogene

21:479-482

  1. Franchimont, D., Galon, J., Vacchio, M.S., Fan, S., Visconti, R., Frucht, D.M., Geenen, V., Chrousos,

G.P., Ashwell, J.D., O’Shea, J.J. (2002) Positive Effects of Glucocorticoids on T Cell Development and

Function by Upregulation of Interleukin-7 Receptor (. J. Immunol,.168: 2212-2218

  1. Koch C A, Vorrtmeyer A O, Diallo R, Poremba C, Giordano T J, Sanders D, Bornstein S R, Chrousos G

P, and Pacak K. (2002) Survivin: A Novel Neuroendocrine Marker for Pheochromocytoma. Eur. J.

Endocrinol 146: 381-388

  1. Mendonca B B, Leite M V, deCastro M, Kino T, Elias L L, Bachega T A S, Billerbeck A E Arnhold I A

J P, Chrousos G P, Latronico A C (2002) Female Pseudohermaphrodotism Caused by A Novel

Homozygous Missence Mutation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene. J. Clin. Endocrinol.. Metab.

87:1805-1809

  1. Meduri G. U., Tolley E. A., Chrousos G. P. and Stentz F. (2002) Prolonged Methylprednisolone

Treatment Suppresses Systemic Inflammation in Patients with Unresolving ARDS: Evidence for

Inadequate Endogenous Glucocorticoid Secretion and Inflammation-induced Immune Cell Resistance to

Glucocorticoids. Am. J. Resp. Crit. Care Med. 165:983-991

  1. Sato H., Nagashima Y., Chrousos GP, Ichihashi M., Fusanaka Y. ( 2002) The Expression of

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone in Melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 15:98-103

  1. Charmandari E, Weise M, Bornstein S R, Eisenhofer G, Keil M F, Chrousos G, Merke D P. (2002)

Children with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Have Elevated Serum Leptin Concentrations and

Insulin Resistance.J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87: 2139-2143

  1. Alesci S, Ramsey WJ, Bornstein SR, Chrousos GP, Hornsby PJ, Benvega S, Trimarchi F, Ehrhart-

Bornstein M (2002) Adenoviral Vectors Can Impair Adrenocortical Steroidogenesis: Clinical

Implications for Natural Infections and Gene Therapy. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99:7484-7489

  1. Vottero A., Kino T., Combe H., Lecomte P., and Chrousos G.P. (2002) A Novel, C-terminal Dominant

Negative Mutation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Causes Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance through

Abnormal Interactions with p160 Steroid Receptor Coactivators. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 87: 2658-

2667

  1. Greiner E., Atkinson A. J., Ayala A., Chrousos G. P., Contoreggi C., Eckelman W. C., Gold P.W., Habib

K., Jacobson A.E., Webster E.,L., Rice K.C. (2002) Synthesis of Doubly Labelled 13C Antalarmin

Isotopomers for Pharmakokinetic Studies. J. Lab. Cpds and Radiopharmaceuticals 45:637-645

  1. Charmandari E, Eisenhofer G, Mehlinger S, Carlson A, Wesley R, Keil M, Chrousos GP, New MI,

39

Merke DP. (2002) Adrenomedullary Function May Predict Phenotype and Genotype in Classic 21-

Hydroxylase Deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87: 3031-3037

  1. Young IR, Chan EC, Smith R, Chrousos GP, Veldhuis JD, Canny BJ (2002) The Effect of Antalarmin, a

Novel Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Antagonist on the Dynamic Function of the Preterm Ovine Fetal

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroendocrinology 76:47-54

  1. Webster E L, Barrientos R M, Contoreggi C, Isaac M G, Ligier S, Habib K, Chrousos G P, McCarthy E

F, Rice K C, Gold PW, Sternberg E M. (2002) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) Antagonist

Attenuattes Adjuvant-induced Arthritis: Evidence Supporting Major Role for CRH in Peripheral

Inflammation. J. Rheumatol. 29: 1252-1261.

  1. Gabry K.E., Chrousos G.P., Rice K.C., Mostafa R.M., Sternberg E., Negrao A.B., Webster E.L., McCann

S.M., Gold P.W. (2002) Marked suppression of gastric ulcerogenesis and intestinal responses to stress by

a novel class of drugs. Molec. Psych. 7:474-483.

  1. Vgontzas A N, Zoumakis M, Papanicolaou D A, Bixler E , Prolo P, Lin H-M, Vela-Bueno A, Kales M d,

and Chrousos GP. (2002) Chronic Insomnia is Associated with a Shift of IL-6 and TNFı Secretion from

Nighttme to Daytime. Metabolism, 29:1252-1261

  1. Koch CA, Mauro D, Walther MM, Linehan,WM, Vortmeyer AO, Jaffe R, Pacak K, Chrousos GP,

Zhuang Z, Lubensky IA (2002) Pheochromocytoma in VHL Disease: Distinct Histopathologic

Phenotype Compared to Pheochromocytoma in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2. Endocrine

Pathology 13:17-27

  1. Mansky P. J., Liewehr D. J., Steinberg S. M., Chrousos G. P., Avila N. A., Long L., Bernstein D.,

Mackall C. L., Hawkins D. S., and Helman L. J. (2002) Treatment of Metastatic Osteosarcoma with the

Somatostatin Analog OncoLar: Significant Reduction of IGF-1 Serum Levels. J. Ped. Hematol. Oncol.

24:440-446

  1. Pacak K, Tjurmina O, Palkovits M, Goldstein DS, Koch CA, Hoff T., Chrousos GP (2002) Chronic

Hypercortisolemia Inhibits Dopaminergic Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens but not the Prefrontal

Cortex: An in Vivo Microdialysis Study. Neuroendocrinology 76:148-157

  1. Kino T, Gragerov A, Slobodskaya O, Tsopanomihalu-Nglotsou M, Chrousos GP, and Pavlakis G (2002)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Accessory Protein Vpr Induces Transcription of the

HIV-1 and Glucocorticoid-responsive Promoters by Binding Directly to p300/CBP Coactivators. J. Virol.

76:9724-9734

  1. Kino T. Tsukamoto M., and Chrousos GP (2002) Transcription Factor TFIIH Components Enhance the

GR Coactivator Activity but Not the Cell Cycle –arresting Activity of the Human Immunodeficiency

Virus Type-1 Protein Vpr. Bioch. Biophys. Res. Commun. 298: 17-23

  1. Mirani M, Elenkov I, Volpi S, Hiroi N, Chrousos GP, and Kino T (2002) Human Immunodeficiency

Type-1 (HIV-1) Protein Vpr Suppresses Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytes by

Enhancing Glucocorticoid Action: Potential Implications of Vpr Coactivator Activity for the Innate and

Cellular Immunity Deficits Observed in HIV-1 Infection. J Immunol 169:6361-6368

  1. Skalkidou A, Petridou E, Papathoma E, Salvanos H, Chrousos GP, Trichopoulos D (2002) Birth Size and

Neonatal Levels of Major Components of the IGF System: Implication for Later Risk of Cancer. J Ped

Endocrinol Metab. 15: 1479-1486

  1. Bader T, Zoumakis E, Friedberg M, Hiroi N, Chrousos GP, Hochberg Z (2002) Human Adipose Tissue

under in Vitro Inhibition of 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: Differentiation and

Metabolism Changes. Horm Metab Res 34: 752-757

  1. Wolkersdorfer GW, Bornstein SR, Higginbotham JN, Hiroi N, Vaquero JJ, Green MV, Blaese RM,

Aguilera G, Chrousos GP, Bornstein SR (2002) A Novel Approach Using Transcomplementing

Adenoviral Vectors for Gene Therapy of Adrenocortical Cancer. Horm Metabol Res 34: 279-287

  1. Kino T and Chrousos GP (2003) Tumor Necrosis Factor–alpha- and Fas-associated FLASH Inhibits

40

Transcriptional Acivity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor by Binding to and Interfering with its

Interaction with p160 Type Nuclear Receptor Coactivators. J Biol Chem 278: 3023-3029

  1. Petridou E, Mantzoros C, Dessypris N, Koukoulomatis P, Addy C, Voulgaris Z, Chrousos G,

Trichopoulos D (2003) Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations in Relation to Endometrial Cancer: A Case

Control Study in Greece. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 983-997

  1. Tiosano D, Eisenstadt I, Militianu D, Chrousos GP , Hochberg Z (2003) 11-Beta- Hydroxysteroid

Dehydrogenase Activity in Hypothalamic Obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 379-384

  1. Friedberg M, Zoumakis E, Hiroi N, Bader T, Chrousos GP, Hochberg Z (2003) Modulation of 11-Beta-

Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Mature Human Subcutaneous Adipocytes by Hypothalamic

Messengers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88: 385- 393

  1. Marini JC, Hopkins E, Glorieux FH, Chrousos GP, Reynolds JC, Gundberg CM, Reing CM (2003)

Positive Linear Growth and Bone Responses to Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Types III

and IV Osteogenesis Imperfecta: High Predicitive Value of the Carboxyterminal Propeptide of Type I

Procollagen. J Bone Miner Res 18: 237-243

  1. Vottero A, Kimci-Sarfaty C, Kratzsch J, Chrousos GP, Hochberg Z. (2003) Transcriptional and

Translational Regulation of the Splicing Isoforms of the Growth Hormone Receptor by Glucocorticoids.

Horm Metab. Res. 35: 7-12

  1. Vottero A, Kimcy-Sarfaty C, Kratzsch J, Miller G, Lafferty A, Chrousos GP, Hochberg Z. (2003)

Relative Abudance of Growth Hormone Receptor Isoforms in Rhesus Monkey Tissues and Human

Transformed Lymphocytes. Horm. Metab. Res. 35: 1-6

  1. Merke DP, Fields JD, Keil MF, Vaituzis C, Chrousos GP, Giedd JN (2003) Children with Classic

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Have Decreased Amygdala Volume: Potential Prenatal and Postnatal

Hormonal Effects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab 88: 1760-1765

  1. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis M, Bixler EO, Lin H-M, Prolo P, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A and Chrousos GP

(2003) Impaired Nighttime Sleep Is Associated with Elevated Plasma IL-6 and Cortisol Levels in

Healthy Old vs. Young Adults: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:

2087-2095

  1. Kino T, Souvatzoglou E, De Martino MU, Tsopanomihalou M, Wan Y. and Chrousos GP (2003) Protein

14-3-3 sigma Interacts with and Favors Cytoplasmic Subcellular Localization of the Glucocorticoid

Receptor, Acting as a Negative Regulator of the Glucocorticoid Signaling Pathway. J. Biol. Chem.

252:32-44

  1. Alesci S, De Martino M, Mirani M, Benvega S, Trimarchi F, Kino T, and Chrousos GP (2003) LCarnitine:

A Nutritional Modulator of Glucocorticoid Receptor Functions. FASEB J. (Electronic release

June 17). 17(11):1553-5

  1. Vozarova B, Weyer C, Snitker S, Gautier J-F, Cizza G, Chrousos G, Ravussin E, and Tataranni PA

(2003) Effect of Cortisol on Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians. J Clin

Endocrinol. Metab 88: 3218-26

  1. Jagoda, E., Contoreggi, C Lee MJ, Kao CHK , Szajak LP , Listwak, Gold PW, Chrousos GP, Greiner E,.

Jacobson AE, Rice KC and Eckelman W (2003) Autoradiographic Visualization of Corticotropin

Releasing Hormone Type 1 Receptors with a Nonpeptide Ligand: Synthesis of [ MJL-1-101-2. J Med

Chem. 46:3559-3562

  1. Hiroi N, Kino T, Bassett M, Rainey WE, Phung M, Abu-Asab M, Fojo T, Briata P, Chrousos GP,

Bornstein SR. (2003) Pituitary Homeobox Factor 1, A Novel Transcription Factor in the Adrenal

Regulating Steroid 11Beta -hydroxylase. Horm Metab Res. 35: 273-8.

  1. Skalkidou A, Petridou E., Papathoma E, Salvanos H, Kedikoglou S., Chrousos G. and Trichopoulos D

(2003) Determinants and Consequences of Major Insulin-like Growth Factor Components among Fullterm

Neonates. Canc Epidemiol Biomark Prev 12:860-865.

41

  1. Contoreggi C, Herning R.I, Na P, Gold PW, Chrousos GP, Negro PJ, Better W, and. Cadet JL (2003)

Stress Hormone Responses to Corticotropin–Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Substance Abusers without

Severe Co-morbid Psychiatric Disease. Biol Psychiatry 54: 873-878.

  1. De Martino M, Bhattachryya N, Alesci S, FabbriA, ChrousosGP and Kino T (2004)The Glucocorticoid

Receptor (GR) and the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription

Factor II (COUP-TFII) Interact with and Mutually Affect Each Other’s Transcriptional Activities:

Implications for Intermediary Metabolism. Molecular Endocrinol. 18:820-833.

  1. Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Kitsiou S, Mavrou A, Stamoyannou L, Kolialexi A, Kekou K, Liakopoulou M,

Chrousos G (2004) Tall Stature, Insulin Resistance, and Disturbed Behavior in a Girl with the Triple X

Syndrome Harboring 3 SHOX Genes: Offspring of a Father with Mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome but with

Two Maternal X Chromosomes. Horm Res 61: 205-210.

  1. Weise M, Mehlinger S, Rawson E, Charmandari E, Eisenhoffer G, Yanovski J, Chrousos GP, Merke D.

(2004) Patients with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Have Decreased Epinephrine Reserve and

Defective Glucose Elevation in Response to High Intensity Exercise, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89: 591-

597.

  1. Mantzoros C, Petridou E, Dessypris N, Chavelas H, Dalamaga M, Alexe DM, Papadiamantis Y,

Markopoulos C, Spanos E, Chrousos G, Trichopoulos D (2004) Adiponectin and Breast Cancer Risk J

Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 1102-7.

  1. Ward AM, Syddall HE, Wood PJ, Chrousos GP, Phillips DI (2004) Fetal Programming of the

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis: Low Birth Weight and Central HPA Regulation. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab 89: 1227-33.

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Souvatzoglou E, Vottero A, Bhattacharayya N, and Chrousos GP (2004)

Natural Glucocorticoid Receptor Mutants Causing Glucocorticoid Resistance: Molecular Genotype,

Genetic Transmission and Clinical Phenotype. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.89: 1939-1949.

  1. Charmandari E, Merke D, Negro PJ, Keil M, , Martinez PE, Haim A, Gold PW and Chrousos GP

(2004) Endocrinologic and Psychologic Evaluation of 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency Carriers and Matched

Normal Subjects: Evidence for Physical and/or Psychologic Vulnerability to Stress , J Clin Endocrinol

Metab 89:2228-2236.

  1. Vgontzas A, Zoumakis E, Bixler EO, Lin H-M, Follett H, Kales A and Chrousos GP (2004) Adverse

Effects of Modest Sleep Restriction on Sleepiness, Performance, and Inflammatory Cytokines. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab 89: 2119-2126.

  1. Yuhas Y, Weizman A, Chrousos GP, Ovadia H, Ashkenazi S. (2004) Involvement of the Neuropeptide

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone in an Animal Model of Shigella-related Seizures. J Neuroimmunol.

153: 36-39.

  1. Weise M, Drinkard B Mehlinger SL, Eisenhofer G, Chrousos GP and Merke DP (2004) Stress Dose of

Hydrocortisone is not Beneficial in Patients with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Undergoing

Short-term High-intensity Exercise. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89: 3679-3684.

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Naka KK, Papanikolaou E, Kazakos N, Kravariti M, Calis KA, Paraskevaidis EA,

Sideris DA, Tsatsoulis A, Chrousos GP, and Michalis LK (2004) Impaired Endothelial Function in

Young Women with Premature Ovarian Failure: Normalization with Hormone Therapy .J Clin

Endocrinol Metab 89: 3907-3913.

  1. Schulpis KH, Papassotiriou I, Vounatsou M, Karikas GA, Tsakiris S, Chrousos GP. (2004) Morning

Preprandial Plasma Ghrelin and Catecholamine Concentrations in Patients with Phenylketonuria and

Normal Controls: Evidence for Catecholamine-mediated Ghrelin Regulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab

89:3983-7.

42

  1. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Lin H-M, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP (2004) Marked Decrease of

Sleepiness in Patients with Sleep Apnea by Etanercept, a TNF8alphaAntagonist. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 89: 4409-13.

  1. Charmandari E, Chrousos GP, Ichijo T, Bhattacharyya N, Vottero A, Souvatzoglou E, Kino T.Related

Articles, Links (2005) The Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (hGR) {beta} Isoform Suppresses the

Transcriptional Activity of hGR{alpha} by Interfering with Formation of Active Coactivator Complexes.

Mol Endocrinol. 19: 52-64.

  1. Glass JM, Lyden AK, Petzke F, Stein P, Whalen G, Ambrose K, Chrousos G, Clauw DJ. (2004) The

effect of brief exercise cessation on pain, fatigue, and mood symptom development in healthy, fit

individuals. J Psychosom Res. 57: 391-398.

  1. Ayala AR, Pushkas J, Higley JD, Ronsaville D, Gold PW, Chrousos GP, Pacak K, Calis KA, Gerald M,

Lindell S, Rice KC, Cizza C (2004) Behavioral, Adrenal and Sympathetic Responses to Long Term

Administration of an Oral Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonist in a Primate Stress

Paradigm. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89: 5729-5737.

  1. Tiulpakov A, Rubtsov P, Dedov I, Peterkova V, Bezlepkina O, Chrousos GP, Hochberg Z J (2005) A

Novel C-terminal Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Mutation Results in Impaired GHR-Stat5 but

Normal Stat3 Signaling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 542-547.

  1. Bloch M, Rubinow D, Schmidt PJ, Lotsikas A, Chrousos GP, Cizza G (2005) Cortisol Response to

oCRH in a Model of Pregnancy and Parturition in Euthymic Women with and without a History of

Postpartum Depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 695-699.

  1. Mantzoros C, Petridou E, Alexe DE, Skalkidou A, Dessypris N, Papathoma E, Salvanos H, Shetty E,

Gavrila A, Kedikoglou S, Chrousos G, Trichopoulos, D (2004) Serum Adiponectin Concentrations in

Relation to Maternal and Perinatal Characteristics in Newborns. Eur J Endocrinol 151:741-746.

  1. Kino T, Ichijo T, Chrousos G (2004) FLASH Interacts with p160 Coactivator Subtypes and

Differentially Suppresses Transcriptional Activity of Steroid Hormone Receptors. J Steroid Biochem and

Molec Biol. 92: 357-363.

  1. Kino T, Ichijo T, Charmandari E, De Martino M, Outas T and Chrousos GP (2005) The Human

Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) Accessory Protein Vpr Inhibits the Effect of Insulin on the

Foxo Subfamily of the Forkhead Transcription Factors by Interfering with its Binding to 14-3-3 Proteins:

Potential Clinical Implications Regarding the Insulin Resistance of HIV-1-infected Patients. Diabetes

2005 Jan; 54(1): 23-31.

  1. Lycopoulou L, Mamoulakis C, Hantzi E, Demetriadis D, Antypas S, Giannaki M, Bakoula C, Chrousos

G, Papassotiriou I. (2005) Serum Amyloid A Protein Levels as a Possible Aid in the Diagnosis of Acute

Appendicitis in Children. Clin Chem Lab Med. 43(1): 49-53.

  1. Cizza G, Romagni P, Lotsikas A, Lam G, Rosenthal NE, Chrousos GP. (2005) Plasma leptin in men and

women with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy matched controls. Horm Metab Res 37(1): 45-48.

  1. Alesci S, Martinez P,Kelkar S, Ilias I, Ronsaville DS, Listwak SJ,.Ayala AR, Licinio J, Gold H, Kling

MA, Chrousos GP, and Gold PW(2005) Major Depression Is Associated with Significant Diurnal

elevations In Plasma IL-6 Levels, A Shift of Its Circadian Rhythm, and loss of physiologic complexity

in its secretion: Clinical Implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:2522-2530.

  1. Kino T, GragerovA, ValentinA, Tsopanomihalou M, Ilyina-GragerovaG, Cohen-Erwin R, Chrousos GP

and Pavlakis GN(2005) Vpr Protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Binds to 14-3-3 Proteins

and Facilitates Complex Formation with Cdc25C: Implications for Cell Cycle Arrest. J Virol 79:2780-

2787.

  1. Petridou E, Mantzoros CS, Belechri M, Skalkidou A, Dessypris N, Papathoma E, Salvanos H, Lee JH,

Kedikoglou S, Chrousos G, Trichopoulos D (2005). Neonatal leptin levels are strongly associated with

female gender, birth length, IGF-I levels and formula feeding. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).62(3):366-71.

43

  1. Merke DP, Giedd JN, Keil MF, Mehlinger SL, Wiggs E, Holzer S, Rawson E, Vaituzis AC, Stratakis

CA, Chrousos GP. (2005) Children Experience Cognitive Decline Despite Reversal of Brain Atrophy

One Year Following Resolution of Cushing Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90:2531-2536.

  1. Fruchter O, Kino T, Zoumakis E,Alesci S, De Martino, M, Chrousos G, Hochberg, Z.(2005) The Human

Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Isoform _ Differentially Suppresses GR_-induced Transactivation

Stimulated by Synthetic Glucocorticoids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:3505-3509.

  1. Charnandari E, Raji A, Kino T, Ichijo T, Tiulpakov A, Zachman K, Chrousos GP (2005) A Novel Point

Mutation in the Ligand-Binding Domain (LBD) of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (hGR) Causing

Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance: The Importance of C-terminus of hGR LBD in Conferring

Transactivational Activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90: 3696-3705.

  1. Rubinow DR, Roca CA, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA, Putnam K, Cizza G, Chrousos G, Nieman L.

(2005) Testosterone Suppression of CRH-Stimulated Cortisol in Men. Neuropsychopharmacology

30:1906-1912.

  1. Margeli A, Skenderi K, Tsironi M, Hantzi E, Matalas AL, Vrettou C, Kanavakis E, Chrousos G,

Papassotiriou I. Dramatic Elevations of Interleukin-6 and Acute Phase Reactants in Athletes

Participating in the Ultradistance Foot Race “Spartathlon”: Severe Inflammation and Lipid and

Lipoprotein Changes in Protracted Exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90: 3914-3918.

  1. Putnam K, Chrousos GP, Nieman LK, Rubinow DR. (2005) Sex-Related Differences in Stimulated HPA

Axis During Induced Gonadal Suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90: 4224-4231.

  1. Gold PW, Wong M-L, Goldstein D, Gold H, Ronsaville D, Esler M, Alesci S, Masood A, Licinio J,

Geraciotti TD, Perini GI, DeBellis MD, Vgontzas AN, Charney DS, Chrousos GP, McCann SM and

Kling MA (2005) Cardiac Implications of Increased Arterial Entry and Reversible 24-h Central and

Peripheral Norepinephrine Levels in Melancholia. Proc Natl Acad of Sci USA.102: 8303-8308.

  1. Deuster PA, Faraday MM, Chrousos GP, Poth MA (2005) Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone and

Alprazolam on Hypothalamic-Pituitary Responses to Exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90:4777-4783.

  1. Manoli I, Hanh Le H, Alesci S, McFann KK, Su Y, Kino T, Chrousos GP, and Blackman MR (2005)

Monoamine Oxidase-A is a Major Target Gene for Glucocorticoids in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells:

Induction of Gene and Oxidative Activity and Relevance to Glucocorticoid- Mediated Myopathy.

FASEB J 19: 1359-1361.

  1. Million M, Maillot C, Adelson DA, Nozu T, Gauthier A, Rivier J, Chrousos GP, Bayati A. Mattsson H,

Tache Y. (2005) Peripheral injection of sauvagine prevents repeated colorectal distension-induced

visceral pain in female rats. Peptides 26(7):1188-1195.

  1. Kravariti M, Naka KK, Kalantaridou SN, Kazakos N, Katsouras CS, Makrigiannakis A, Paraskevaidis

EA, Chrousos GP, Tsatsoulis A, Michalis LK. (2005) Predictors of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young

Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 90:5088-95.

  1. Johnson EO, Kamilaris TC, Calogero AE, Gold PW, Chrousos GP. (2005) Experimentally-induced

hyperthyroidism is associated with activation of the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Eur J

Endocrinol. 153:177-185.

  1. Nishikawa T, Suematsu S, Saito J, Soyama A, Ito H, Kino T, Chrousos G (2005).Human renal mesangial

cells produce aldosterone in response to low-density lipoprotein (LDL).J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.

96:309-316.

  1. Chrousos GP, Ghaly L, Shedden, A,. Iezzoni D, and Harris AG (2005) Effects of Mometasone Furoate

Dry Powder Inhaler and Beclomethasone Dipropionate Hydrofluroalkane and Chlorofluorocarbon on the

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in Asthmatic Subjects. Chest 128:70-77.

  1. Kino T, Ichijo T, Tiulpakov A Chheng L, Kozasa T and. Chrousos GP (2005) The GTP-binding (G)

Protein _ Interacts with the Activated Glucocorticoid Receptor and Suppresses Its Transcriptional

Activity in the Nucleus. J Cell Biol 20;169(6):885-96.

44

  1. Kakourou T, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Papadopoulou A, Kaloumenou E, Chrousos GP (2005) Increased

prevalence of chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis in children and adolescents with vitiligo. J

Am Acad Dermatol. 2005 Aug; 53(2):220-3.

  1. Kino T, Kozasa T and Chrousos GP (2005) Statin-induced Blockade of Prenylation Alters

Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of GTP-binding Proteins _2 and _2 and Enhances their Suppressive Effect

on Glucocorticoid Receptor Transcriptional Activity. Eur J Clin Invest 35:508-513.

  1. Schulpis KH, Papassotiriou I, Tsakiris S, Vounatsou M, and Chrousos GP (2005) Increased Plasma

Adiponectin Concentrations in Poorly Controlled Patients with Phenyketonuria (PKU) Normalize with a

Strict Diet: Evidence for Catecholamine-mediated Adiponectin Regulation and a Complex Effect of PKU

Diet on Atherogenesis Risk Factors. Metabolism 54:1350-1355.

  1. Siahanidou T, Mandyla H, Vounatsou M, Anagnostakis D, Papassotiriou I, and Chrousos GP (2005)

Circulating Peptide YY Concentrations Are Higher in Preterm than Term Infants and Correlate

Negatively with Body Weight and Positively with Serum Ghrelin Levels. Clin Chemistry. 51(11):2131-7.

  1. Papoutsi Z, Kassi E, Tsiapara A, Fokialakis N, Chrousos GP, Moutsatsou P. (2005) Evaluation of

Estrogenic/Antiestrogenic Activity of Ellagic Acid via the Estrogen Receptor Subtypes ERalpha and

ERbeta. J Agric Food Chem. 53(20):7715-7720.

  1. Papoutsi Z, Kassi E, Mitakou S, Aligiannis N, Chrousos GP, Moutsatsou P. (2006) Acteoside and

Martynoside Exhibit Estrogenic/Antiestrogenic Activity. J Steroid Biochem and Mol Biol 98(1):63-71.

Epub 2005 Sep 28.

  1. Ichijo T, Voutetakis A, Cotrim AP, Bhattachryya N, Fujii M, Chrousos GP and Kino T (2005) The

SMAD6/histone Deacetylase 3 Complex Silences the Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid

Receptor: Potential Clinical Implications. J Biol Chem. 280(51):42067-77.

  1. Nassis GP, Papantakou K, Skenderi K, Triandafillopoulou M, Kavouras S, Yannakoulia M, Chrousos G,

Sidossis L. (2005) Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity without Changes in Body

Weight, Body Fat, Adiponectin and Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Girls. Metabolism

54(11): 1472-1479.

  1. Papandreou O, Soldatou A, Tsitsika A, Cariyannis C, Papandreou T, Papassotiriou, Zachariadi A, and

Chrousos GP (2005) Serum S100ııProtein in Children with Acute Recurrent Headache: A Potentially

Useful Marker for Migraine. Headache 45: 1313-1316.

  1. Kino T, Liou S-H, Charmandari E and Chrousos GP (2005) Pathologic Human Glucocorticoid Receptor

Mutants Demonstrate Defective Motility inside the Nucleus of Living Cells: Percent Recovery Time

afterPhotobleaching (FRAP) is an Integrated Measure of Receptor Function. Mol Med. 10(7-12): 80-8.

  1. Bamberger AM, Minas V, Kalantaridou S, Radde J, Sadeghian H, Loening T, Charalambopoulos J,

Bruemmer J, Wagener C, Bamberger CM, Schulte HM, Chrousos GP and Makrigiannakis A (2005)

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Modulates Human Trophoblast Invasion through CEACAM-1

Regulation. Am J Pathol. 2006 68(1): 141-50.

  1. Meduri GU, Muthiah MP, Carratu P, Eltorky M and Chrousos GP (2005) Nuclear factor-_B- and

Glucocorticoid Receptor a- mediated Mechanisms in Regulation of Systemic and Pulmonary

Inflammation during Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Evidence for Inflammation–

induced Target Tissue Resistance to Glucocorticoids. Neuroimmunomodulation 12(6): 321-38.

  1. Nicolaidou P, Papadopoulou A, Georgouli H, Matsinos YG, Tsapra H, Fretzayas A, Giannoulia-

Karantana A, Kitsiou S, Douros K, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos GP. (2006) Calcium and Vitamin D

Metabolism in Hypocalcemic Vitamin D-Resistant Rickets Carriers. Horm Res. 65(2): 83-88.

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Ichijo T, Zachman K, Alatsatianos A, Chrousos GP (2006) Functional

Characterization of the Natural Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Mutants hGRalphaR477H and

hGRalphaG679S Associated with Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance. J Clin Endocrinol 91: 1535-

1543.

45

  1. Ronsaville DS, Municchi G, Laney C, Cizza G, Meyer SE, Haim A, Radke-Yarrow M, Chrousos, GP,

Gold PW, Martinez PE. (2006) Maternal and Environmental Factors Influence the Hypothalamicpituitary-

adrenal axis Response to Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Infusion in Offspring of Mothers

with or without Mood Disorders. Develop Psychopathol 18(1): 173-94.

  1. Alesci S, Manoli I, Su Y, Blackman M, Rennert O, Chrousos GP (2006) Development of a New

Mitochondria-focused cDNA Microarray (hMitChip): Validation in Skeletal Muscle Cells and

Implications for Pharmaco-and Mitogenomics. The Pharmacogenomics J. 6(5):333-42.

  1. Kino T, Souvatzoglou E, Charmandari E, Ichijo T, Driggers P, Mayers C, Alatsatianos A, Manoli I,

Westphal H, Chrousos GP and Segars JH (2006) Rho Family Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Brx

Couples Extracellular Signals to the Glucocorticoid Signaling System. J Biol Chem. 281: 9118-9126.

  1. Krisnamoorthy S, Bei T, Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP and Iliadis AA (2006) Morphological and Binding

Properties of Interleukin-6 on Thin ZnO Films Grown on (100) Silicon Substrates for Biosensor

Applications. Biosens Bioelectron 22: 707-14.

  1. Giedd JN, Clasen LS, Lenroot R, Greenstein D, Wallace GL, Ordaz S, Molloy EA, Blumenthal JD,

Tossell JW, Stayer C, Samango-Sprouse CA, Shen D, Davatzikos C, Merke D, Chrousos GP (2006).

Puberty-related influences on brain development. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 254-255:154-62.

  1. Vgontzas AN, Trakada G, Bixler EO, Lin H-M, Pejovic S, Zoumakis E, Chrousos, GP, Legro R (2006)

Plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha Levels are Elevated in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Independently of

Obesity and Sleep Apnea. Metabolism 55: 1076-82.

  1. Priftis K, Papadimitriou A, Anthracopoulos B, Gatsopoulou E, Fretzayas A, Nicolaidou P, Chrousos G

(2006) Adrenal Function Improvement in Asthmatic Children on Inhaled Steroids Studied

Longitudinally. Neuroimmunomodulation 13(1): 56-62.

  1. Vgontzas AN, Pejovic, S, Zoumakis E, Lin H-M, Bixler EO, Basta M, Fang J, Sarrigiannidis A,

Chrousos, GP (2007) Daytime Napping After a Night of Sleep Loss Decreases Sleepiness, Improves

Performance, and Causes Beneficial Changes in Cortisol and Interleukin-6 Secretion. Am J Physiol

Endocrinol Metab 292: E253-61.

  1. Fruchter O, Zoumakis E, Alesci S, De Martino M, Chrousos G, Hochberg Z. (2006) Intracrine

modulation of gene expression by intracellular generation of active glucocorticoids. Steroids. 71: 1001-6.

  1. Leong GM, Abad V, Charmandari E, Reynolds JC, Hill S, Chrousos GP and Nieman LK (2007). The

effects of child- and adolescent-onset endogenous Cushing syndrome on areal and volumetric bone

mineral density, body composition and growth: a 7-year prospective study into young adulthood. J Bone

Miner Res 22(1):110-8.

  1. Siahanidou T, Mandyla H, Papassotiriou GP, Papasotiriou I, Chrousos GP (2007) Circulating Levels of

Adiponectin in Preterm Infants. Arch Dis Child Fet Neon 92(4):F286-90.

  1. Nicolaidou P, Papadopoulou A, Matsinos YG, Georgouli H, Fretzayas A, Papadimitriou A, Priftis K,

Douros K, Chrousos GP. (2006) Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms in Hypocalcemic Vitamin DResistant

Rickets Carriers. Horm Res. 67(4):179-183 [Epub ahead of print].

  1. Spyridopoulos TN, Petridou ET, Skalkidou A, Dessypris N, Chrousos GP, Mantzoros CN, and the

Obesity and Cancer Oncology Group (2007) Low Adiponectin Levels are Associated with Renal Cell

Carcinoma: A Case-control Study. Inter J Cancer [Epub ahead of print]; 120: 1573-8.

  1. Arditi JD, Venihaki M, Karalis KP and Chrousos GP (2007) Anti-proliferative Effect of Adiponectin on

MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells: A Potential Hormonal Link between Obesity and Cancer. Horm Metabol Res

39: 9-13.

  1. Alevizaki M, Cimponeriu A, Lekakis J, Papamichael C, Chrousos GP (2007) High Anticipatory Stress

Plasma Cortisol and Increased Sensitivity to Glucocorticoids Predict Severity of Coronary Artery

Disease in Subjects Undergoing Coronary Angiography. Metabolism 56: 222-6.

46

  1. Kakourou T, Karachristou K and Chrousos GP (2007) A Case Series of Alopecia Areata in Children:

Impact of Personal and Family History of Stress and Autoimmunity. JADV 21: 356-359.

  1. Bartzeliotou AI, Margeli AP, Tsironi M, Skenderi K, Bacoula C, Chrousos GP, Papassotiriou I. (2007)

Circulating levels of adhesion molecules and markers of endothelial activation in acute inflammation

induced by prolonged brisk exercise. Clin Biochem. 2007 Jan 26; 40(11):765-70.

  1. Krekoukia M, Nassis GP, Psarra G, Skenderi K, Chrousos GP, Sidossis LS. (2007) Elevated total and

central adiposity and low physical activity are associated with insulin resistance in children. Metabolism.

56(2):206-13

  1. Bai X, Wu J, Zhang Q, Alesci S, Manoli I, Blackman MR, Chrousos GP, Goldstein AL, Rennert OM,

and Su YA. (2007) The Third-Generation Human Mitochondria-focused cDNA Microarray (hMitChip3)

and its Bioinformatics Tool for Analysis of Gene Expression. BioTechniques 42:365-375

  1. Chrousos GP, O’Dowd L, Uryniak T, Simpson B, Casty M, Goldman M (2007) Basal and Cosyntropinstimulated

Plasma Cortisol Concentrations, as Measured by High-performance Liquid Chromatography,

in Children Aged 5 Months to <6 Years. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 92(6):2125-9.

  1. Kino T, Rice KC and Chrousos GP (2007) The PPAR _ Agonist GW501516 Suppresses Interleukin-6

Action via STAT3 Inhibition. Eur J Clin Invest 37:425-433.

  1. Xekouki P, Nikolakopoulou NM, Papageorgiou A, Livadas S, Voutetakis A, Magiakou MA, Chrousos

GP, Spiliotis BE, Dacou-Voutetakis C. (2007) Glucose Dysregulation in Obese Children: Predictive,

Risk, and Potential Protective Factors. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15: 860-869.

  1. Kino T, Ichijo T, Amin ND, Kesavapany S, Amin ND, Wang Y, Kim N, Player A, Garabedian MJ,

Kawasaki E, Pant HC and Chrousos GP (2007) Cyclin-dependent Kinase 5 Differentially Regulates the

Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor through Phosphorylation: Clinical Implications

for the Nervous System Response to Glucocorticoids and Stress. Mol Endocrinol. 21(7):1552-68

  1. Papaevangelou V, Papassotiriou I, Vounatsou M, Chrousos G, Theodoridou M. (2007) Changes in leptin

serum levels in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Scand J Clin Lab

Invest. 67:291-6.

  1. Nicolaidou P, Tsitsika A, Papadimitriou A, Karantana A, Papadopoulou A, Psychou F, Liakopoulou D,

Georgouli H, Kakourou T, Chrousos G. (2007) Hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets in Greek children:

genotype, phenotype, and long-term response to treatment. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 20:425-30.

  1. Kino T, Boos TL, Sulima A, Siegel EM, Gold PW, Rice KC and Chrousos GP (2007) 3-O-formyl-

20R,21-Epoxyresibufogenin Suppresses Interleukin 6-type Cytokine Actions by Targeting the gp130

Subunit : Potential Clinical Implications. J All Clin Immunol 120:437-444.

  1. Trimis G, Moschovi M, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos G, Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou (2007) Early Indicators of

Dysmetabolic Syndrome in Young Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Childhood as a

Target for Preventing Disease. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 29:309-314.

  1. Mantzoros CS, Trakatelli M, Gogas H, Dessypris N, Stratigos A, Chrousos GP, Petridou ET. (2007)

Circulating adiponectin levels in relation to melanoma: A case-control study. Eur J Cancer 43:1430-6

  1. Mills JL, Hediger ML, Molloy CA, Chrousos GP, Manning-Courtney P, Yu KF, BrasingtonM, England

LJ (2007) Elevated Levels of Growth-Related Hormones in Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Clin

Endocrinol. 67:230-237

  1. Siahanidou T, Mandyla H, Militsi H, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos G. (2007) Peptide YY (3-36) Represents

a High Percentage of Total PYY Immunoreactivity in Preterm and Full-Term Infants and Correlates

Independently With Markers of Adiposity and Serum Ghrelin Concentrations. Pediatr Res. 2007 Jun 25;

62(2):200-3

  1. Livadas S, Magiakou MA, Mengreli C, Girginoudis P, Galani C, Smyrnaki P, Kanaka-Gantenbein C,

47

Xekouki P, Chrousos GP, Dacou-Voutetakis C. (2007) Obesity and Attenuated Adiposity Rebound in

Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism. Normalization of BMI Values in Adolescents. Horm Metab

Res. 39:524-528

  1. Pervanidou P, Kolaitis G, Charitaki S, Lazaropoulou Ch, Papassotiriou I, Hindmarsh P, Bakoula Ch,

Tsiantis J and Chrousos GP (2007) The Natural History of Neuroendocrine Changes in Pediatric Posttraumatic

Stress Disorder (PTSD) after Motor Vehicle Accidents: Progressive Divergence of

Noradrenaline and Cortisol Concentrations over Time. Biol Psychiatry 62(10):1095-102

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Ichijo T, Jubiz W, Zachman K, Chrousos GP (2007) A Novel Point Mutation in

Helix 11 of the Ligand-binding Domain (LBD) of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Gene

Causing Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 92:3986-3990

  1. Minas V, Rolaki A, Kalantaridou SN, Sidiropoulos J, Mitrou S, Petsas G, Jeschke U, Paraskevaidis EA,

Fountzilas G, Chrousos GP, Pavlidis N and Makrigiannakis A (2007) Intratumoral CRH Modulates

Immuno-escape of Ovarian Cancer Cells through FasL Regulation. Br J Cancer 97(5):637-45

  1. Vgontzas AN, S Pejovic S, Zoumakis E, Lin H-M, Bechtel C, EO Bixler EO, A. Sarrigiannidis A, Basta

M, Chrousos GP (2007) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-AdrenalAxis Activity in Obese Men with and without

Sleep Apnea: Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:

4199-4207

  1. Pervanidou P, Kolaitis G, Charitaki S, MargeliA, Ferentinos S, Bakoula C, Lazaropoulou C, Papassotiriou

I, Tsiantis J and Chrousos GP (2007) Elevated Morning Serum Interleukin (IL)-6 or Evening Salivary

Cortisol Concentrations Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents Six Months

after a Motor Vehicle Accident. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32(8-10):991-9

  1. Pavlatou MG, Mastorakos G, Lekakis I, Liatis, Vamvakou G, Zoumakis E, Papassotiriou I, Rabavilas AD,

Katsilambros N and Chrousos GP (2007) Chronic Administration of an Angiotensin II Receptor

Antagonist Resets the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis and Improves the Affect of Patients with

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Preliminary Results. Stress 11(1):62-72

  1. Hoffman KE, Derdak J, Bernstein D M, Reynolds JC, Avila NA, Gerber L, Steinberg S, Chrousos G,

Mackall CL and Mansky PJ (2008) Metabolic Syndrome Traits in Long-term Survivors of Pediatric

Sarcoma at a Single Institution. Ped Blood and Cancer 50(2):341-6

  1. Shrivastav S, Kino K, Cunningham T, Ichijo T, Schubert U, Heinklein P, Chrousos GP and Kopp JB

(2007) HIV-1 Vpr suppresses transcriptional activity of PPAR_ and inhibits adipocyte differentiation:

Implications for HIV-associated lipodystrophy. Mol Endo 22:234-247

  1. Gogas H, Trakatelli M, Dessypris N, Terzidis A, Katsambas A, Chrousos GP, Petridou ET (2007)

Melanoma risk in association with serum leptin levels and lifestyle parameters: a case–control study. Ann

Oncol 19:384389

  1. Ichijo T, Chrousos GP and KinoT (2007) Activated Glucocorticoid Receptor Interacts with the INHAT

Component Set/TAF-I_ and Releases it from a Glucocorticoid-responsive Gene Promoter, Relieving

Repression: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Glucocorticoid Resistance in Acute Undifferentiated

Leukemia with Set-Can Translocation. Mol Cell Endocrinol 283:19-31

  1. Karamessinis PM, Malamitsi-Puchner A, Boutsikou T, Makridakis M, Vougas K, Fountoulakis M,

Vlahou A, Chrousos G. (2007) Marked defects in the expression and glycosylation of alpha -2-HS

glycoprotein/fetuin-A in plasma from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction: Proteomic screening

and potential clinical implications. Mol Cell Proteomics 7:591-599

  1. Pervanidou P, MargeliA, Lazaropoulou C, Papassotiriou I and ChrousosGP (2008) The Immediate and

Long-term Impact of Physical or Emotional Stress from Motor Vehicle Accidents on Circulating Stress

Hormones and Adipo-cytokines in Children and Adolescents. Stress 11: 438-447

  1. Vgontzas AN, Lin H-M, Papaliagka M, Calhoun S, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos GP, O. Bixler EO (2008)

Short Sleep Duration and Obesity: The Role of Emotional Stress and Sleep Disturbances Int J Obes

(Lond). 2008 May;32(5):801-809

48

  1. Skenderi KP, Tsironi M, Lazaropoulou C, Anastasiou CA, Matalas AL, Kanavaki I, Thalmann M,

Goussetis E, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos GP (2008) Changes in free radical generation and antioxidant

capacity during ultramarathon foot race. Eur J Clin Invest 38 (3):159-165.

  1. Krishnamoorthy S, Iliadis A A, Bei T and Chrousos G (2008) ZnO SAW Biosensor for Interleukin-6

Detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 24(2):313-8.

  1. Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Margeli A, Pervanidou P, Sakka S, Mastorakos G, Chrousos GP, Papassotiriou I

(2008) Retinol Binding Protein-4 and Lipocalin-2 in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: When Children

are not just Small Adults. Clin. Chem. 54(7):1176-82

  1. Moschovi M, Trimis G, Vounatsou M, Katsibardi K, Margeli A, Dimitriadi F, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos

GP, Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou F (2008) Serial Plasma Concentrations of PYY and Ghrelin during

Chemotherapy in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Ped Hem Oncol 30: 733-737

  1. Vgontzas AN, Zoumakis E, Bixler EO, Lin H-M, Collins B, Basta M, Pejovic S, Chrousos GP (2008)

Selective Effects of CPAP on Sleep Apnea-related Manifestations. Eur J. Clin Invest 38: 585-595

  1. 602. Elenkov1J, Kvetnansky R, Hashiramoto A, Bakalov VK, Link AA, Zachman K, Crane M, Jezova D,

Rovensky J, Dimitrov MA, Gold PW, Bonini S, Fleisher T, Chrousos GP , Wilder RL (2008) Low

versus High Baseline Epinephrine Output Shapes Opposite Innate Cytokine Profiles: Presence of Lewisand

Fischer-like Neurohormonal-Immune Phenotypes in Humans. J Immunol 181:1737-1745

  1. Kaloumenou I, Mastorakos G, Alevizaki M, Duntas LH, Mantzou E, Ladopoulos C, Antoniou A, Chiotis

D, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos GP, Dacou-Voutetakis C (2008) Thyroid autoimmunity in schoolchildren in

an area with long-standing iodine sufficiency: correlation with gender, pubertal stage, and maternal

thyroid autoimmunity. Thyroid 18(7):747-54.

  1. Charmandari E, Ichijo T, Jubiz W, Baid S, Zachman K, Chrousos GP, Kino T. (2008) A Novel Point

Mutation in the Amino Terminal Domain of the Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (hGR) Gene Enhancing

hGR-mediated Gene Expression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 93(12):4963-8

  1. Nader N, Chrousos GP and Kino T (2009) Circadian Rhythm Transcription Factor CLOCK Regulates the

Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor by Acetylating its Hinge Region Lysine Cluster:

Potential Physiologic Implications. FASEB J. 23:1572-83

  1. Kino T, Takatori H, Manoli I, Wang Y, Tiulpakov A, Blackman MR, Su YA, Chrousos GP, DeCherney

AH, and Segars JH (2009) Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Brx Mediates Lymphocyte Adaptive

Response to Osmotic Stress: An Intracellular Signaling Pathway Linking Extracellular Hyperosmosis and

Immune Activation. Science Signaling 2(57) RA5

  1. Fishbein D, Sheppard M, Hyde C, Hubal R, Newlin D, Serin R, Chrousos G, Alesci S (2009) Deficits in

Behavioral Inhibition Predict Treatment Engagement in Prison Inmates. Law Hum Behav. 2009 Jan

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Sakka SD, Malamitsi-Puchner A, Loutradis D, Chrousos GP, Kanaka-Gantenbein C (2009) Euthyroid

Hyperthyrotropinemia in Children Born after In Vitro Fertilisation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. [Epub

ahead of print]

  1. Bakoula C, Kolaitis G, Veltsista A, Gika A, Chrousos GP. (2009) Parental stress affects the emotions and

behaviour of children up to adolescence: A Greek prospective, longitudinal study. Stress. Feb 10:1.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Piaditis GP, Kaltsas GA, Androulakis II, Gouli A, Makras P, Papadogias D, Dimitriou K, Ragkou D,

Markou A, Vamvakidis K, Zografos G, Chrousos G. (2009) High prevalence of autonomous cortisol and

aldosterone secretion from adrenal adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Feb 18. [Epub ahead of print]

49

  1. Kino T, Manoli I, Kelkar S, Wang Y, Su YA and Chrousos GP (2009) Human Glucocorticoid Receptor

(GR) Isoform _ Has Intrinsic, GR_-independent Transcriptional Activity. BBRC [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Loizou S, Paraschos S, Mitakou S, Chrousos G, Lekakis I, Moutsatsou P (2009) Chios Mastic Gum

Extract and Isolated Phytosterol Tirucallol Exhibit Anti-inflammatory Activity in Human Aortic

Endothelial Cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009 Feb 20 [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Livadas S, Dracopoulou M, Vasileiadi K, Lazaropoulou C Magiakou MA, P Xekouki P, Voutetakis A,

Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Papassotiriou I, Stefanadis C, Chrousos GP, Dacou-Voutetakis C (2009) Elevated

coagulation and inflammatory markers in adolescents with a history of premature adrenarche.

Metabolism 58: 576–581

  1. Spyridopoulos TN, Petridou ET, Dessypris N, Terzidis A, Skalkidou A, Deliveliotis C, Chrousos GP;

Obesity and Cancer Oncology Group. (2009) Inverse association of leptin levels with renal cell

carcinoma: results from a case-control study. Hormones (Athens) 8: 39-46

  1. Bixler EO, Papaliaga MN, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Pejovic S, Karataraki M, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos
  2. (2009) Women sleep objectively better than men and the sleep of young women is more resilient to

external stressors: effects of age and menopause. J Sleep Res [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Vgontzas AN, Liao D; Bixler EO, Chrousos GP, Vela-Bueno A (2009) Insomnia with Objective Short

Sleep Duration is Associated with a High Risk for Hypertension. Sleep 32:491-497

  1. Pervanidou P, Margeli A, Akalestos A, Sakka S, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Papassotiriou I and GP Chrousos

(2009)Associations between Circulating N-type Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) and Adiponectin

Concentrations Depend on Obesity Level in Female Adolescents: Gender Dimorphic Findings. Horm

Metab Res

  1. Livadas S, Dracopoulou M, Lazaropoulou C, Papassotiriou I, Sertedaki A, Angelopoulos N, Chrousos

GP and Dacou-Voutetakis A (2009) A Favorable Metabolic and Antiatherogenic Profile in Carriers of

CYP21A2 Gene Mutations Supports the Theory of a Survival Advantage in this Population. Horm Res

72:337-343

  1. Moschovi M, Trimis G, Vounatsou M, Katsibardi K, Margeli A, Damianos A, Chrousos G, and

Papassotiriou I (2010) Serial Plasma Concentrations of Adiponectin, Leptin, and Resistin During

Therapy in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Ped Hematol Oncol 2010 Jan;32(1):e8-13

  1. Lang L, Y. Ma Y, Kim BM, Jagoda EM, Rice KC, Szajek LP, Contoreggi C, Gold PW, Chrousos GP,

Eckelman WC, and Kiesewetter DO (2009) [76Br]BMK-I-152, a non-peptide analogue for PET imaging

of corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1). J Lab Compounds & Radiopharm

  1. Magiakou MA, Manousaki D, Papadaki M, Hadjidakis D, Levidou G, Vakaki M, Papaefstathiou A,

Lalioti N, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Piaditis G, Chrousos GP, Dacou-Voutetakis C. (2009)The Efficacy and

Safety of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog Treatment in Childhood and Adolescence: A Single

Center, Long-Term Follow-Up Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kaditis AG, Lianou L, Hatzinikolaou S, Kalampouka E, Gartagani-Panayiotopoulou P, Zintzaras E,

Chrousos G. (2009) Tonsillar size in 2- to 14-year-old children with and without snoring. Pediatr

Pulmonol. Nov 12. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. TsaoussoglouM, Bixler EO, Calhoun S, ChrousosGP, Sauder K., Vgontzas AN (2009) Sleep Disordered

Breathing in Obese Children is Associated with Prevalent EDS, Inflammation and Metabolic

Abnormalities. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2009 Nov 19 [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Loizou S, Lekakis I, Chrousos GP, Moutsatsou P (2009) beta-Sitosterol exhibits anti-inflammatory

activity in human aortic endothelial cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Nov 24 [Epub ahead of print]

50

  1. Samara A, Vougas K, Papadopoulou A, Anastasiadou E, Baloyanni N, Paronis E, Chrousos GP,

Tsangaris GT. (2009) Proteomics reveal rat hippocampal lateral asymmetry. Hippocampus. 2009 Dec

17 [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Sakka SD, Loutradis D, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Margeli A, Papastamataki M, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos

GP (2009) Absence of insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation despite early metabolic syndrome

manifestations in children born after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2009 Dec 31[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kino T, HurtDE, Ichijo T, NaderN and ChrousosGP (2010) Noncoding RNA Gas5 is a Growth Arrest

and Starvation-associated Repressor for the Glucocorticoid Receptor. Science Signaling, Feb

2;3(107):ra8.

  1. Siahanidou T, Margeli A, Davradou M, Apostolakou F, Papassotiriou I, Roma E, Mandyla H, Chrousos
  2. Circulating adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels in healthy preterm infants: Positive correlation

with weight gain and total-cholesterol levels. Early Human Dev 2010 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kino T, Jaffe H, Amin ND, Chakrabarti M, Zheng YL, Chrousos GP, and Pant HC (2010)

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Modulates the Transcriptional Activity of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

(MR) and Regulates Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. Mol Endocrinol April 2010

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Gazouli M, Pachoula I, Panayotou I, Mantzaris G, Chrousos G, Anagnou NP, Roma-Giannikou E (2010)

NOD2/CARD15, ATG16L1 and IL23R gene polymorphisms and childhood-onset of Crohn’s disease.

World J Gastroenterol. 6(14):1753-8

  1. Moschovi M, Trimis G, Tsotra M, Chatzi F, Karamolegou K, Santou A, Tourkantoni N, Chrousos G.

(2010) Efficacy and safety of linezolid in immunocompromised children with cancer. Pediatr Int. 2010

Feb 9. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pervanidou P, Akalestos A, Sakka S, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos GP (2010)

Gender dimorphic associations between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, body mass index and

blood pressure in children and adolescents. Horm Res Paediatr. 2010; 73(5):341-8. Epub 2010 Apr 14.

  1. Syrengelas D, Siahanidou T, Kourlaba G, Kleisiouni P, Bakoula C, Chrousos GP (2010) Standardization

of the Alberta infant motor scale in full-term Greek infants: Preliminary results. Early Hum Dev. May 7.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pejovic S, Vgontzas AN, Basta M, Tsaoussoglou M, Zoumakis E, Vgontzas A, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP.

(2010) Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss. J Sleep Res. 2010

Jun 9. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Nader N, Ng SS, Lambrou GI, Pervanidou P, Wang Y, Chrousos GP, Kino T. (2010)

Adenosine 5′- Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Metabolic Actions of Glucocorticoids

by Phosphorylating the Glucocorticoid Receptor through p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase. Mol

Endocrinol. 24: 1748–1764

  1. Al-Attas OS, Al-Daghri NM, Alokail M, Alfadda A, Bamkahramah A, Sabico S, Pritlove D, Harte A,

Tripathi G, McTernan P, Kumar S, Chrousos G. (2010) Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Correlate with

Telomere Length in Middle-aged Arabs: The Influence of Circulating Adiponectin. Eur J Endocrinol.

2010 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Bathrellou E, Yannakoulia M, Papanikolaou K, Pehlivanidis A, Pervanidou P, Kanaka-Gantenbein C,

Tokou I, Tsiantis J, Chrousos GP, Sidossis LS. (2010) Parental involvement does not augment the

effectiveness of an intense behavioral program for the treatment of childhood obesity. Hormones

(Athens). 2010 Apr-Jun;9(2):171-5.PMID: 20687401 [PubMed – in process]

2.

  1. Naka KK, Kalantaridou SN, Kravariti M, Bechlioulis A, Kazakos N, Calis KA, Makrigiannakis A,

Katsouras CS, Chrousos GP, Tsatsoulis A, Michalis LK. (2010) Effect of the insulin sensitizers

51

metformin and pioglitazone on endothelial function in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome:

a prospective randomized study. Fertil Steril. 2010 Aug 3. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Al-Okail MS, Alkharfy KM, Al-Yousef MA, Nadhrah HM, Sabico SB,

Chrousos GP. (2010) Severe hypovitaminosis D is widespread and more common in non-diabetics than

diabetics in Saudi adults. Saudi Med J. 2010 Jul; 31 (7): 775-80.

  1. Al-Disi D, Al-Daghri N, Khanam L, Al-Othman A, Al-Saif M, Sabico S and Chrousos G (2010)

Subjective sleep duration and quality influence diet composition and circulating adipocytokines and

ghrelin levels in teen-age girls. Endo J [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Sabico SL, Chrousos GP (2010) Decreasing

Prevalence of the Full Metabolic Syndrome but a Persistently High Prevalence of Dyslipidemia among

Adult Arabs. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 13;5 (8). pii: e12159.

  1. Chouliaras G, Panayiotou J, Dimakou C, Pachoula J, Orfanou I, Chrousos GP, Roma-Giannikou E

(2010) Biological agents in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease : a clinical observation study from

Greece. Acta Gatroenterol. Belg 73: 342-348.

  1. Douzinas EE, Betrosian A, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Tasoulis MK, Prigouris P, Livaditi O,

Andrianakis I, Goutas N, Vlachodimitropoulos D, Pelekanou A, Villiotou V, Legakis I, Chrousos GP

(2010) Hypoxemic resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock prevents lung injury and attenuates oxidative

response and IL-8 over-expression. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Chouliaras G, Panayiotou J, Dimakou C, Pachoula J, Orfanou I, Chrousos GP, Roma-Giannikou E.

(2010) Biological agents in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a clinical observation study from

Greece. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. Jul-Sep; 73(3): 342-8.

  1. Markopoulos MC, Rizos D, Valsamakis G, Deligeoroglou E, Grigoriou O, Chrousos GP, Creatsas G,

Mastorakos G. Hyperandrogenism in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Persists after Menopause.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec 22. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pavlatou MG, Mastorakos G, Margeli A, Kouskouni E, Tentolouris N, Katsilambros N, Chrousos GP,

Papassotiriou I. Angiotensin blockade in diabetic patients decreases insulin resistance-associated lowgrade

inflammation. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Dec 22 [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Moutsatsou P, Papoutsi Z, Kassi N, Heldring N , Zhao G, Tsiapara A, Melliou E, Chrousos GP, Chinou

I, Karshikoff A, Nilsson L, Dahlman-Wright K (2010) Fatty Acids Derived from Royal Jelly Are

Modulators of Estrogen Receptor Functions. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15594

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Yousef M, Nadhrah HM, Al-Othman A, Al-

Saleh Y, Sabico S, Chrousos GP. (2010) Hypovitaminosis D and cardiometabolic risk factors among

non-obese youth. Cent Eur J Med 5(6): 752-757.

  1. Jacobsson JA, Rask-Andersen M, Risérus U, Moschonis G, Koumpitski A, Chrousos GP, Lannfelt L,

Marcus C, Gyllensten U, Schiöth HB, Fredriksson R. Genetic variants near the MGAT1 gene are

associated with body weight, BMI and fatty acid metabolism among adults and children. Int J Obes

(Lond). 2011 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Yakout SM, Sabico SB, Gibson GC, Chrousos

GP, Kumar S (2011) Parent-Offspring Transmission of Adipocytokine Levels and Their

Associations with Metabolic Traits. PLoS ONE 6(4): e18182. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018182

  1. Vasilopoulos Y, Sarafidou T, Bagiatis V, Skriapa L, Goutzelas Y, Pervanidou P, Lazopoulou N,

Chrousos GP, Mamuris Z. (2011) Association Between Polymorphisms in MTHFR and APOA5 and

Metabolic Syndrome in the Greek Population. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2011 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of

print]

  1. Gouli A, Kaltsas G, Tzonou A, Markou A, Androulakis II, Ragkou D, Vamvakidis K, Zografos G,

Kontogeorgos G, Chrousos GP, Piaditis G. (2011) High prevalence of autonomous aldosterone

secretion among patients with essential hypertension. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 May 3. doi:

52

10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02531.x. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Galata Z, Moschonis G, Makridakis M, Dimitraki P, Nicolaides NC, Manios Y, Bartzeliotou A,

Chrousos GP and Charmandari E (2011) Plasma proteomic analysis in obese and overweight prepubertal

children. Eur J Clin Invest [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Leka S, Kousta E, Anyfandakis K, Dolianiti M, Vakaki M, Linos D, Chrousos GP, Papathanasiou A

(2011) Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease: a case report in a 7-year-old girl. J Pediatr

Endocrinol Metab. 24(3-4): 197-202.

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Majed S. Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Yousef M, Sabico SL, Chrousos GP

(2011) Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and other Chronic Non-communicable Diseases in the Central Region,

Saudi Arabia (Riyadh Cohort 2): A Decade of an Epidemic. BMC Medicine [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Malakasioti G, Gourgoulianis K, Chrousos G, and Kaditis A (2011) Interactions of Obstructive Sleepdisordered

Breathing with Recurrent Wheezing or Asthma and their Effects on Sleep Quality. Ped

Pulmonology [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Spoulou V, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Bathrellou I, Mora S, Mostrou G, Sidossis L, Chrousos G,

Theodoridou M. (2011) Monitoring of Lipodystrophic and Metabolic Abnormalities in HIV-1 Infected

Children on Antiretroviral Therapy. Hormones (Athens) Apr; 10 (2):149-55.

  1. Michos A, Tzanoudaki M, Villa A, Giliani S, Chrousos G, Kanariou M. (2011) Severe Combined

Immunodeficiency in Greek Children over a 20-Year Period: Rarity of _(c)-Chain Deficiency (XLinked)

Type. J Clin Immunol. 2011 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kolaitis G, Giannakopoulos G, Liakopoulou M, Pervanidou P, Charitaki S, Mihas C, Ferentinos S,

Papassotiriou I, Chrousos GP, Tsiantis J. (2011) Predicting pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder after

road traffic accidents: The role of parental psychopathology. J Trauma Stress. 2011 Aug 2. doi:

10.1002/jts.20667. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Karamouzis I, Pervanidou P, Berardelli R, Iliadis S, Papassotiriou I, Karamouzis M, Chrousos GP ,

Kanaka-Gantenbein C (2011) Enhanced Oxidative Stress and Platelet Activation Combined with

Reduced Antioxidant Capacity in Obese Prepubertal and Adolescent Girls with Full or Partial Metabolic

Syndrome Horm Metab Res 43: 607–613

  1. Andreou, E.; Alexopoulos, E.C.; Lionis, C.; Varvogli, L.; Gnardellis, C.; Chrousos, G.P.; Darviri, C.

(2011) Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public

Health 8, 3287-3298.

  1. Pogka V, Kossivakis A, Kalliaropoulos A, Moutousi A, Sgouras D, Panagiotopoulos T, Chrousos GP,

Theodoridou M, Syriopoulou VP, Mentis AF. (2011) Respiratory viruses involved in influenza-like

illness in a Greek pediatric population during the winter period of the years 2005-2008. J Med Virol.

83(10): 1841-8.

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, El-Kholie E, Yousef M, Al-Othman A, Al-

Saleh Y, Sabico S, Kumar S, Chrousos GP. (2011) Increased Vitamin D Supplementation

Recommended during Summer Season in the Gulf Region: A Counterintuitive Seasonal Effect in

Vitamin D Levels in Adult, Overweight and Obese Middle-eastern Residents. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).

2011 Sep 12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04219.x. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Rask-Andersen M, Jacobsson JA, Moschonis G, Chavan RA, Sikder MA, Allzén E, Alsiö J, Chrousos

GP, Manios Y, Fredriksson R, Schiöth HB. (2011) Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and

waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in

rats. Eur J Hum Genet. 2011 Sep 28. doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.176. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Charmandari E, Chrousos GP, Lambrou GI, Pavlaki A, Koide H, Ng SSM and Kino T (2011) Peripheral

CLOCK Regulates Target-Tissue Glucocorticoid Receptor Transcriptional Activity in a Circadian

Fashion in Man. PLoS ONE 6(9): e25612. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025612

53

  1. Zannas AS, McQuoid DR, Steffens DC, Chrousos GP, Taylor WD. (2011)Stressful life events,

perceived stress, and 12-month course of geriatric depression: direct effects and moderation by the 5-

HTTLPR and COMT Val158met polymorphisms. Stress. 2011 Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Al-Saleh Y, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Al-Othman A, Moharram O, El-

Kholie E, Sabico S, Kumar S, Chrousos GP. (2011) Modest reversal of metabolic syndrome

manifestations with vitamin D status correction: a 12-month prospective study.Metabolism. 2011 Nov 8.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Moschonis G, Chrousos GP, Lionis C, Mougios V, Manios Y. Association of total body and visceral fat

mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study. Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov 16:1-10.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Fragiadaki K, Tektonidou MG, Konsta M, Chrousos GP, Sfikakis PP. (2011) Sleep Disturbances and

Interleukin 6 Receptor Inhibition in Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2011 Dec 1. [Epub ahead of

print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Al-Othman A, Draz HM, Yakout SM, Al-Saleh

Y, Al-Yousef M, Sabico S, Clerici M, Chrousos GP. (2011) Hypovitaminosis D Associations with

Adverse Metabolic Parameters Are Accentuated in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: A BMIIndependent

Role of Adiponectin? J Endocrinol Invest. 2011 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Tigani X, Artemiadis AK, Alexopoulos EC, Chrousos GP, Darviri C (2011) Gender differences in Greek

centenarians. A cross-sectional nationwide study, examining multiple socio-demographic and personality

factors and health locus of control. BMC Geriatr. 2011 Dec 21;11(1):87. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Bixler EO, Singareddy R, Shaffer ML, Calhoun SL, Liao D, Basta

M, Chrousos GP (2012) Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health.

Sleep. 2012 Jan 1; 35(1): 61-8.

  1. Almén MS, Jacobsson JA, Moschonis G, Benedict C, Chrousos GP, Fredriksson R, Schiöth HB. Genome

wide analysis reveals association of a FTO gene variant with epigenetic changes. Genomics. 2012 Jan 2.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Tsartsali L, Papadopoulos M, Lagona E, Papadimitriou A, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Louizou E, Kastania

A, Priftis KN, Chrousos G (2012) Association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-related

polymorphisms with stress in asthmatic children on inhaled corticosteroids. Neuroimmunomodulation.

2012; 19(2):88-95. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

  1. Lambrou GI, Papadimitriou L, Chrousos GP, Vlahopoulos SA. (2012) Glucocorticoid and proteasome

inhibitor impact on the leukemic lymphoblast: Multiple, diverse signals converging on a few key

downstream regulators. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Musharaf S, Al-Othman A, Al-Daghri NM, Krishnaswamy S, Yusuf DS, Alkharfy KM, Al-Saleh Y,

Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Moharram O, Yakout S, Sabico S, Chrousos GP (2012) Vitamin D deficiency

and calcium intake in reference to increased body mass index in children and adolescents. Eur J Pediatr.

2012 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Tigani X, Artemiadis AK, Alexopoulos EC, Chrousos GP, Darviri C. (2012) Self-rated health in

centenarians: A nation-wide cross-sectional Greek study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 Feb 21 [Epub

ahead of print]

  1. Nader N, Ng SSM, Wang Y, Abel BS, Chrousos GP, Kino T (2012) Liver X Receptors Regulate the

Transcriptional Activity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor: Implications for the Carbohydrate Metabolism.

PLoS ONE 7(3): e26751.

  1. Androutsos O, Grammatikaki E, Moschonis G, Roma-Giannikou E, Chrousos GP, Manios Y, Kanaka-

Gantenbein C. (2012) Neck circumference: a useful screening tool of cardiovascular risk in children.

Pediatr Obes. 2012 Apr 13. doi: 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00052.x. [Epub ahead of print]

54

  1. Sällman Almén M, Rask-Andersen M, Jacobsson JA, Ameur A, Kalnina I, Moschonis G, Juhlin S,

Bringeland N, Hedberg LA, Ignatovica V, Chrousos GP, Manios Y, Klovins J, Marcus C, Gyllensten U,

Fredriksson R, Schiöth HB. Determination of the obesity-associated gene variants within the entire FTO

gene by ultra-deep targeted sequencing in obese and lean children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Apr 24. doi:

10.1038/ijo.2012.57 [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Alfadda AA, Sallam RM, Chishti MA, Moustafa AS, Fatma S, Alomaim WS, Al-Naami MY, Bassas AF,

Chrousos GP, Jo H. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of

chemerin in obesity: Adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism. Mol Cells. 2012 Apr 27 [Epub

ahead of print]

  1. Pervanidou P, Bastaki D, Chouliaras G, Papanikolaou K, Laios E, Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Chrousos GP.

Circadian cortisol profiles, anxiety and depressive symptomatology, and body mass index in a clinical

population of obese children. Stress. 2012 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Rask-Andersen M, Jacobsson JA, Moschonis G, Ek AE, Chrousos GP, Marcus C, Manios Y, Fredriksson

R, Schiöth HB. The MAP2K5-linked SNP rs2241423 is associated with BMI and obesity in two cohorts

of Swedish and Greek children. BMC Med Genet. 2012 May 17; 13(1):36 [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Attas O, Al-Daghri N, Alokail M, Alkharfy K, Alfadda A, McTernan P, Gibson G, Sabico S,

Chrousos G. Circulating leukocyte telomere length is highly heritable among families of Arab descent.

BMC Med Genet. 2012 May 18;13(1):38. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Charmandari E, Sertedaki A, Kino T, Merakou C, Hoffman DA, Hatch MM, Hurt DE, Lin L, Xekouki P,

Stratakis CA, Chrousos GP. (2012) A Novel Point Mutation in the KCNJ5 Gene Causing Primary

Hyperaldosteronism and Early-Onset Autosomal Dominant Hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012

May 24. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Tsaoussoglou M, Lianou L, Maragozidis P, Hatzinikolaou S, Mavromati M, Orologas N,

Panaghiotopoulou-Gartagani P, Rassidakis G, Balatsos NA, Chrousos G, Kaditis AG. Cysteinyl

leukotriene receptors in tonsillar B- and T-lymphocytes from children with obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep

Med. 2012 May 28. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Johnson EO, Calogero AE, Konstandi M, Kamilaris TC, La Vignera S, Chrousos GP (2012) Effects of

short- and long-duration hypothyroidism on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats: In vitro

and in situ studies. Endocrine. 2012 Jun 14. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Siahanidou T, Garatzioti M, Lazaropoulou C, Kourlaba G, Papassotiriou I, Kino T, Imura A, Nabeshima

YI, Chrousos G (2012) Plasma soluble _-Klotho protein levels in premature and term neonates:

Correlations with growth and metabolic parameters. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Johnson EO, Kamilaris TC, Calogero AE, Konstandi M, Chrousos GP. Effects of Short- and Long-

Duration Hypothyroidism on Function of the Rat Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. J Endocrinol

Invest. 2012 Jun 18. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kritikou I, Basta M, Tappouni R, Pejovic S, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Nazir R, Shaffer M, Liao D, Bixler

E, Chrousos G, Vgontzas AN. (2012) Sleep apnoea and visceral adiposity in middle-aged males and

females. Eur Respir J. 2012 Jun 27. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Othman A, Al-Musharaf S, Al-Daghri N, Krishnaswamy S, Yusuf D, Alkharfy K, Al-Saleh Y, Al-

Attas O, Alokail M, Moharram O, Sabico S, Chrousos G. Effect of physical activity and sun exposure on

vitamin D status of Saudi children and adolescents.BMC Pediatr. 2012 Jul 3;12(1):92. [Epub ahead of

print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Al-Othman A, El-Kholie E, Moharram O, Alokail MS, Al-Saleh Y,

Sabico S, Kumar S, Chrousos G (2012) Vitamin D supplementation as an adjuvant therapy for patients

with T2DM: an 18-month prospective interventional study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012 Jul 18;11(1):85.

[Epub ahead of print]

55

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Othman A, Alkharfy KM, Alokail MS, Khan N, Alfawaz HA, Aiswaidan IA,

Chrousos GP. (2012) Assessment of selected nutrients intake and adipocytokines profile among Saudi

children and adults. Endocr J. 2012 Jul 13. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Moschonis G, Mavrogianni C, Karatzi K, Iatridi V, Chrousos GP, Lionis C, Manios Y (2012) Increased

physical activity combined with more eating occasions is beneficial against dyslipidemias in children.

The Healthy Growth Study. Eur J Nutr. 2012 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Attas OS, Al-Daghri NM, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Yakout S, Draz H, Sabico S, Chrousos GP

(2012) Association of body mass index, sagittal abdominal diameter and waist-hip ratio with

cardiometabolic risk factors and adipocytokines in arab children and adolescents. BMC Pediatr. 2012

Aug 7; 12(1):119. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Spyridopoulos TN, Dessypris N, Antoniadis AG, Gialamas S, Antonopoulos CN, Katsifoti K, Adami

HO, Chrousos GP, Petridou ET, Obesity and Cancer Oncology Group; (2012) Insulin resistance and risk

of renal cell cancer: a case-control study. Hormones (Athens). 2012 Jul; 11(3): 308-15.

  1. Al-Othman A, Al-Musharaf S, Al-Daghri NM, Yakout S, Alkharfy KM, Al-Saleh Y, Al-Attas OS,

Alokail MS, Moharram O, Sabico S, Kumar S, Chrousos GP (2012) Tea and coffee consumption in

relation to vitamin D and calcium levels in Saudi adolescents. Nutr J. 2012 Aug 20; 11(1): 56. [Epub

ahead of print]

  1. Papaioannou G, Kambas I, Tsaoussoglou M, Panaghiotopoulou-Gartagani P, Chrousos G, Kaditis AG.

(2012) Age-Dependent Changes in the Size of Adenotonsillar Tissue in Childhood: Implications for

Sleep-Disordered Breathing. J Pediatr. 2012Aug 30. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Bindahman LS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Draz HM, Yakout S,

McTernan PG, Sabico S, Chrousos GP (2012) Soluble CD163 is associated with body mass index and

blood pressure in hypertensive obese Saudi patients.Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 Jul 27. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-

2362.2012.02714.x. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Al-Saleh Y, Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Al-Othman A, Sabico S, Chrousos

GP (2012) Normal Circulating PTH in Saudi Healthy Individuals with Hypovitaminosis D.Horm Metab

Res. 2012 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Johnson EO, Calogero AE, Konstandi M, Kamilaris TC, Vignera SL, Chrousos GP (2012) Effects of

experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rats:

in vitro and in situ studies. Pituitary. 2012 Sep 14. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Chrousos GP, McKay RD, Decherney AH, Kino T. (2012) Expression

Profiles of the Nuclear Receptors and Their Transcriptional Coregulators During Differentiation of

Neural Stem Cells. Horm Metab Res. 2012 Sep 18. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kouni S, Karakitsos P, Chranioti A, Theodoridou M, Chrousos G, Michos A (2012) Evaluation of viral

co-infections in hospitalized and non-hospitalized children with respiratory infections using microarrays.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Sep 5. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12015. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Papanastasiou L, Pappa T, Samara C, Apostolopoulou G, Tsiavos V, Markou A, Alexandraki K, Piaditis

G, Chrousos G, Kaltsas G. (2012) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in subjects with adrenal

incidentaloma. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov; 42(11):1165-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2012.02707.x.

Epub 2012 Aug 1

  1. Aravidou E, Tsangaris G, Samara A, Dontas I, Botsis D, Aravidis C, Chrousos GP, Malamitsi-Puchner
  2. (2012) Aberrant Expression of Collapsin Response Mediator Proteins -1, -2 and -5 in the Brain of

Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2012 Oct 17. pii: S0736-5748(12)00477-7. doi:

10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2012.10.004. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pervanidou P, Akalestos A, Bastaki D, Apostolakou F, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos G. (2012) Increased

circulating High-Sensitivity Troponin T concentrations in children and adolescents with obesity and the

metabolic syndrome: A marker for early cardiac damage? Metabolism. 2012 Oct 29. doi:pii: S0026-

0495(12)00358-7. 10.1016/j.metabol.2012.09.012. [Epub ahead of print]

56

  1. Dinopoulou V, Partsinevelos GA, Mavrogianni D, Anagnostou E, Drakakis P, Makrigiannakis A,

Chrousos GP, Loutradis D. The Effect of CRH and Its Inhibitor, Antalarmin, on in Vitro Growth of

Preantral Mouse Follicles, Early Embryo Development, and Steroidogenesis. Endocrinology 2012 Dec 4.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Sertedaki A, Dracopoulou M, Voutetakis A, Stefanaki K, Rodogianni D, Magiakou AM, Kanaka-

Gantenbein C, Chrousos G, Dacou-Voutetakis C. Long-term Clinical Data and Molecular Defects in the

StAR Gene in Five Greek Patients. Eur J Endocrinol 2012 Dec 4. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Manios Y, Moschonis G, Chrousos GP, Lionis C, Mougios V, Kantilafti M, Tzotzola V, Skenderi KP,

Petridou A, Tsalis G, Sakellaropoulou A, Skouli G, Katsarou C. The double burden of obesity and iron

deficiency on children and adolescents in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2012 Dec

  1. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12025. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS, Alkharfy KM, Charalampidis P, Livadas S, Kollias A, Sabico

SL, Chrousos GP. Visceral adiposity index is highly associated with adiponectin values and glycaemic

disturbances. Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 Dec 3. doi: 10.1111/eci.12030. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Manios Y, Birbilis M, Moschonis G, Birbilis G, Mougios V, Lionis C, Chrousos GP; on behalf of the

“Healthy Growth Study” group. Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation based on perinatal factors and

family sociodemographic characteristics: CORE Index. Eur J Pediatr. 2013 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Sarra A, Karantza M, Papaefthymiou M, Soultanakis H, Papaefstathiou A, Nikolaidou P, Bakoula C,

Chrousos G. Influence of developmental and hormonal factors on bone health in adolescent females: a

cross-sectional study and review of the literature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jan 17:1-8. doi:

10.1515/jpem-2012-0355. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Alokail MS, Al-Daghri N, Abdulkareem A, Draz HM, Yakout SM, Alnaami AM, Sabico S, Alenad AM,

Chrousos GP. Metabolic syndrome biomarkers and early breast cancer in Saudi women: evidence for the

presence of a systemic stress response and/or a pre-existing metabolic syndrome-related neoplasia risk?

BMC Cancer. 2013 Feb 4;13(1):54. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Settas N, Dracopoulou-Vabouli M, Dastamani A, Katsikis I, Chrousos G, Panidis D, Dacou-Voutetakis C

(2013) CYP21A2 Mutations in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Horm Metab Res.

2013 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Gika DM, Artemiadis AK, Alexopoulos EC, Darviri C, Chrousos GP, Papanikolaou K. Use of a

relaxation technique by mothers of children with autism: a case-series study. Psychol Rep. 2012 Dec;

111(3): 797-804.

  1. Roberts ML, Kino T, Nicolaides NC, Hurt DE, Katsantoni E, Sertedaki A, Komianou F, Kassiou K,

Chrousos GP, Charmandari E. A Novel Point Mutation in the DNA-Binding Domain (DBD) of the

Human Glucocorticoid Receptor Causes Primary Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance by Disrupting

the Hydrophobic Structure of its DBD. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb 20. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Katsarou AL, Vryonis MM, Protogerou AD, Alexopoulos EC, Achimastos A, Papadogiannis D,

Chrousos GP, Darviri C. Stress management and dietary counseling in hypertensive patients: a pilot

study of additional effect. Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2013 Feb 21:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Bougea AM, Spandideas N, Alexopoulos EC, Thomaides T, Chrousos GP, Darviri C. Effect of the

emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tensiontype

headache sufferers: a randomized controlled trial. Explore (NY). 2013 Mar; 9(2):91-9. doi:

10.1016/j.explore.2012.12.005.

  1. Giannouli G, Tzoumaka-Bakoula C, Kopsidas I, Papadogeorgou P, Chrousos GP, Michos A.

Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Children With Complete and

Incomplete Kawasaki Disease During a 10-Year Period. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Mar 6. [Epub ahead of

print]

57

  1. Markou A, Pappa T, Kaltsas G, Gouli A, Mitsakis K, Tsounas P, Prevoli A, Tsiavos V, Papanastasiou

L, Zografos G, Chrousos GP, Piaditis GP. Evidence of Primary Aldosteronism in a Predominantly

Female Cohort of Normotensive Individuals: A Very High Odds Ratio for Progression into Arterial

Hypertension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar 7. [Epub ahead of print]

ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΑ – ΑΝΑΣΚΟΠΗΣΕΙΣ- ΕΠΙΣΤΟΛΕΣ (* ΜΕΤΑ ΑΠΟ ΚΡΙΣΗ)

  1. Moutsopoulos H.M., Chrousos G.P., Papavassiliou J.T. (1976) Autoimmunity and Slow Viruses.

Materia Medica Graeca, 4, (1), 76-84.

  1. Moutsopoulos H.M., Chrousos G.P., Papavassiliou J.T. (1976) Humoral Thymic Products (Thymosin-

Thymopoietin): Reality and Perspective. Materia Medica Graeca, 4, (1), 85-89.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1976) Bacteriocinogeny in Salmonellae. Doctorate Thesis, Athens University.
  2. Karatzas N.B., Chrousos G.P. (1976) The Adrenergic Neurochemical Transmission and the Drugs that

Influence It. Iatriki, 30: 311-325.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Karatzas N.B. (1977) The Systolic Intervals In Hemodialysis. Changes Related to

Starling’s Law. Hellenic Cardiological Review (Athens), 18: 225-231.

  1. Papadoyiannis D.E., Clouvas P., Chrousos G.P., Karatzas N.B. (1977) A Blind Comparative Trial of a

Beta-Blocker (timolol), a Diuretic and a Combination of the Two in the Treatment of Hypertension.

Iatriki, 32: 391-395.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Karatzas N.B. (1977) The Problem Oriented System and Its Usefulness. Iatriki, 31:

348352.

  1. Cornblath M.D., Chrousos G.P., Adams A. (1979) Hormone Interactions and Glucose Homeostasis.

Acta Paediatrica Belg. 32: 231-238.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Greydanus D. (1981) Adolescent Medicine: Necessity and Perspectives. Iatriki 40: 252-

257.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B., Simons S., Pons M., Moriarty R.M., Loriaux D.L. (1982) Development of

Antiglucocorticoids with Potential Clinical Usefulness. In: Progress in Research and Clinical

Applications of Corticosteroids, Eds. H.J. Lee, and T.J. Fitzerald, Heyden and Son Co., Philadelphia, p.

152-156.

  1. Lipsett M.B., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1982) Glucocorticoid Receptor Defects: Studies in Humans

and a Primate Model in “Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hormone Receptors and

Receptor Diseases.” Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, H. Imura and H. Kuzua (Eds.) p. 187-193.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Munabi A., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1982) Diagnosis of Late-Onset 21-

Hydroxylase Deficiency by Plasma 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Response to ACTH. Ann. Int. Med. (Letter

to the Editor) 97: 281-282.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Brandon D., Merriam G.R., Johnson E.O., Lipsett M.B. (1983) Primary

Cortisol Resistance: A Familial Syndrome and an Animal Model. J. Steroid Biochem. 19: 567-576.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B. Jr., Sauer M., Simons S.S. Jr., Loriaux D.L. (1983) Development of

Glucocorticoid Antagonists: Pharmacol. Ther. 20(2): 263-281.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1983) Pathophysiology of the Endocrine Glands. In: “Basic Principles of

Pathophysiology” Eds. H.M. Moutsopoulos and D.S. Emmanuel, Litsas Press, Athens. p. 116-168.

58

  1. Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. Jr., Gold P.W. (1983) Corticotropin

Releasing Factor: Basic and Clinical Studies. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 19: 416-421.

  1. Becker L., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1983) Analogies betweeen Cushing’s Disease and Depression: A

Case Report. General Hospital Psychiatry. 5: 89-91.

  1. *Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Chatterji D.C., Gold P.W., Oldfield E.H., Loriaux D.L. (1983) Safety of

Corticotropin-Releasing Factor. The Lancet Vol. I (o 8335) p. 1222 (Letter to the Editor).

  1. Healy D.L., Hall N.R., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Goldstein A.L., Loriaux D.L., Hodgen G.H. (1984)

Pituitary Responses to Acute Administration of Thymosin in Prepubertal Primates. In: “Thymic

Hormones and Lymphokines, Ed. Alan Goldstein, Plenum Press, New York, p. 365-374.

  1. *Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Kellner C., Post R., Schulte H., Oldfield E.H., Loriaux D.L. (1984) Basic

and Clinical Studies with Corticotropin Releasing Factor: Psychiatric Implications. Am. J. Psychiatry.

141: 619 627.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Tomita M., Brandon D., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (1984) Glucocorticoid Insensitivity

in Man and Nonhuman Primates. In: Labrie, F. and Prouix, L. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International

Congress of Endocrinology, Elsevier Science Pub., Amsterdam. p. 853-856.

  1. Crawley J.N., Ninan P.T., Pickar D., Chrousos G.P., Scolnick P., Paul S.M. (1984) Behavioral and A

Physiological Responses to Benzodiazepine Receptor Antagonists. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 20: 403-407.

  1. Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P., Reinwein D., Loriaux D.L. (1984) Der Kortikotropin-Releasing-

Faktorstimulations-test inder Differential diagnose des Cushing-Syndroms. Verhandlungender Deutschen

Gesellschaft fur Innere Medizin. Endokrinologie II. 90: 508-511.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Nieman L., Nisula B., Schulte H.M., Oldfield E.H., Gold P.W., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux

D.L. (1984) Corticotropin-releasing Factor Stimulation Test. (Letter to the Editor) N. Engl. J. Med.

311:472-473.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Nieman L., Healy D., Spitz I., Cutler G.B. Jr., Brandon D., Merriam G.R., Hodgen G.,

Bardin C.W., Loriaux D.L. (1984) Antiglucocorticoids: General Aspects and Clinical Implications. In:

Glucocorticoids: Research and Therapy. Eds. H. Fehm, J. Kobberling, and H. Kruskemper Perimed

Fachbush, Verlagsgesellschaft, Erlangen. p. 54-71.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Calabrese J.R., Loriaux D.L., Schuermeyer T., Avgerinos P., Cutler G.B. Jr., Gold P.W.

(1985) Corticotropin Releasing Factor: Basic Studies and Clinical Implications. Prog. in Neuro-

Psychopharmacol. and Biol. Psychiat. 9: 349-359.

  1. Hall N., McGillis J.P., Spangelo B.L., Healy D.L., Chrousos G.P., Schulte H.M., Goldstein A.L.(1985)

Thymic Hormone Effects on the Brain and Neuroendocrine Circuits. In: Neural Modulation of

Immunity. Eds. R. Guillemen, M. Cohen and T. Melnechuk, Raven Press, New York p. 179-193.

  1. Lipsett M.B., Chrousos G.P., Brandon D.D., Tomita M., Loriaux D.L. (1985) The Defective

Glucocorticoid Receptor in Man and Nonhuman Primates. Rec. Prog. Horm. Res. 41: 199-247.

  1. Udelsman R., Gallucci T.W., Gold P.W., Renquist D.L., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1985) Human

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone as a Vasodilator Causing Systemic Hypotension. In: The Adrenal

Gland and Hypertension. F. Mantero, Biglieri E., Funder, J. and Scoggins, B. (Eds) Serono Symposia

Series, Vol. 27, Raven Press, New York, 219-224.

  1. *Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1985) Clinical Studies with Corticotropin Releasing Factor: Implications

for the Diagnosis and Pathophysiology of Depression, Cushing’s Disease and Adrenal Insufficiency.

Psychoneuro- endocrinology (awarded the Kurt Richter Prize for Psychoneuro-endocrinology) 10: 401-

419.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Evans M., McCluskey J., Fletcher J., Loriaux D.L., Schulman J. (1985) Prenatal

Treatment of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New

York, NY. 458: 156-164

59

  1. Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Kellner C., Spitz I., Nisula B.C., Cutler G.B. Jr., Merriam G.R., Bardin

C.W., Loriaux D.L. (1985) Use of the Glucocorticoid Antagonist RU 486 in the Treatment of Cushing’s

Syndrome. In: The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control. Eds. S.J. Segal and E.E.

Baulieu. Plenum Press, New York. 339-345.

  1. Nieman L.K., Healy D., Spitz I., Merriam R., Bardin C.W., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1985) Use of

Single Doses of the Antiprogesterone Steroid RU 486 for Induction of Menstruation in Normal Women.

In: The Antiprogestin Steroid RU 486 and Human Fertility Control. Eds. S.J. Segal and E.E. Baulieu.

Plenum Press, New York 279-283.

  1. Nottelman E.D., Susman E.J., Blue J.H., Inoff G.E., Dorn L.D., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos

G.P. (1985) Gonadal and Adrenal Hormone Correlates of Adjustment in Early Adolescence. In:

Biological-psychosocial Interactions in Early Adolescence: A Life-span Perspective. Eds. R.M. Lerner

and T.T. Foch. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J. p. 303-323.

  1. Oldfield E.H., Chrousos G.P., Nieman L.K., Schaaf M., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L., Doppman J.L.

(1985) Inferior Petrosal Venous Sampling in Lateralization of ACTH-secreting Pituitary Microadenomas.

  1. Engl. J. Med. (Letter to the Editor) 312: 1457-1458.
  2. Udelsman R., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1985) Reevaluation of the Role of Glucocorticoids in

Surgical Stress. Surgical Forum 36: 18-20.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M., Calabrese J.R., Gallucci W.T. Kellner C.H., Post R.M., Cutler G.B., Avgerinos

P.C., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1985) Clinical Applications of Corticotropin Releasing Factor. In:

Nemeroff, C.B., (Ed): Handbook of Clinical Neuroendocrinology. Raven Press, New York.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Schuermeyer T., Oldfield E., Doppman J., Schulte H.M. Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L.

(1985) The Clinical Applications of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor. A Conference of the Combined

Clinical Staff of the National Institutes of Health. Ann. Int. Med. 102: 344-358.

  1. Lipsett M.B., Tomita M., Brandon D., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1986) Cortisol Resistance in Man.

In: Chrousos, G.P., Loriaux, D.L., and Lipsett, M.B. (Eds) Steroid Hormone Resistance: Mechanisms

and Clinical Aspects. Plenum Press, New York, p. 97-110.

  1. Winterer J., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Cutler G.B. (1986) The Adrenal Suppressive Effect of

Hydrocortisone in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,

New York, NY 458: 182-192.

  1. Lipsett M.B., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1986) The Steroid Binding Proteins in the Syndrome of

Glucocorticoid Resistance and in New World Primates. In: The Role of Receptors in Biology and

Medicine. B. O’Malley and A. Gotto (Eds). Raven Press, New York p. 51-61.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Tomita M., Brandon D., Lipsett M.B. (1986) The New World Primates as

Animal Models of Cortisol Resistance. In: Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B., (Eds). Steroid

Hormone Resistance: Mechanisms and Clinical Aspects, Plenum Press, New York, p. 129-144.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1986) Cushing’s Syndrome. In: Conn’s Current Therapy. Ed. Robert E.

Rakel, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia p. 499-502.44. Gold P.W., Calabrese J., Kling M., Avgerinos P.,

Khan I., Gallucci W.T., Tomai T., Chrousos G.P. (1986) Abnormal Pituitary-Adrenal Responses to

Corticotropin Releasing Factor in Depression. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 10: 57-65.

  1. Winterer J., Cutler G.B. Jr., Chrousos G.P., Feuillan P.P., Loriaux D.L. (1986) Management of

CongenitalAdrenal Hyperplasia. J. Pediatrics (Letter to the Editor) 109: 389-90.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Maclusky N. Brandon D., Tomita M., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (1986) Progesterone

Resistance. In: Chrousos, G.P., Loriaux, D.L., and Lipsett, M.B. (Eds). Steroid Hormone Resistance:

Mechanisms and Clinical Aspects, Plenum Press, New York, p. 317-328.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M., Calabrese J., Kellner C., Roy A., Gwirtsman H., Post R.M., Pickar D., Avgerinos

P.C., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Corticotropin Releasing Factor in the Pathophysiology of

60

Hypercortisolism in Depression. In: Hormones and Depression, U. Halbreich (Ed) Raven Press, New

York. 77-89.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1987) Cushing’s Syndrome. In: Conn’s Current Therapy. Ed. Robert E.

Rakel. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia p. 495-498.

  1. Susman E., Nottelman E., Inoff G., Dorn L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Hormonal Influences on Aspects of

Psychological Development. J. Adol. Health Care 8: 492-504.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Luger A., Avgerinos P.C., Kling M., Oldfield E., Nieman L.K., Schuermeyer T., Loriaux

D.L., Gold, P.W. (1987) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone: Relevance to Physiology and

Pathophysiology. In: Recent Advances in Adrenal Regulation and Function, Raven Press, New York,

121-135.

  1. Nieman L.K., Udelsman R., Loriaux D.L. and G.P. Chrousos (1987) Antiglucocorticoids:. In: Recent

Advances in Adrenal Regulation and Function. Raven Press, New York, 235-242.

  1. Udelsman R., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Surgical Stress: The Role of Glucocorticoids and

Catecholamines. In: D’Agata R., and G.P. Chrousos (Eds) Recent Advances in Adrenal Regulation and

Function. Raven Press, New York, 253-263.

  1. Calogero A., Gallucci W., Tomai T., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos, G.P., P.W. Gold (1987) The

GABA/Benzodiazepine System is Involved in the Regulation of Hypothalamic CRH Secretion In Vitro.

In: D’Agata R., and Chrousos G.P. (Eds) Recent Advances in Adrenal Regulation and Function. Raven

Press, New York, 279-284.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M.A., Calabrese J.R., Post R.M., Roy A., Nieman L.K., Cutler G.B. Jr., Loriaux D.L.

Chrousos G.P. (1987) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in the Hypercortisolism of Depression and

Cushing’s Disease. (Letter to the Editor) N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 218-219.

  1. Laue L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Antiinflammatory Steroid Action: Receptor-mediated Effects on

Prostanoid Synthesis. In: D’Agata R. and G.P. Chrousos (Eds). Recent Advances in Adrenal Regulation

and Function. Raven Press, New York, 293-302.

  1. Gold P.W., Gwirtsman H., Brandt H., Jimerson D., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1987) Abnormal

Hypothalamic Pituitary-Adrenal Function in Anorexia Nervosa. (Letter) N.Engl. J. Med. 316: 219-220.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M.A., Khan J., Calabrese J.R., Kalogeras K., Post R.M., Avgerinos P., Loriaux D.L.

and G.P. Chrousos (1987) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone: Relevance to Normal Physiology and to

the Pathophysiology and Differential Diagnosis of Hypercortisolism and Adrenal Insufficiency. In:

Hypothalamic Dysfunction in Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Eds. D. Nerozzi, F.K. Goodwin and E. Costa.

In the series: Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, Vol 43, Raven Press, NY pp. 183-200.

  1. Schürmeyer T.H., Schulte H.M., Avgerinos P., Tomai T.P., Loriaux D.L., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P.

(1987) Pharmacology of Ovine and Human CRH. Horm. Metabol. Res. 16: 24-30.

  1. Avgerinos P., Schuermeyer T., Udelsman R., Nieman L.K., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P.

(1987) Human Corticotropin Releasing Factor as a Tool for Studying the Pulsatile Function of the

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis. In: W. Crowley and J.F. Hofler (Eds) Episodic Hormone

Secretion: Methods of Analysis and Normative Data. Churchill Livingstone, New York p. 389-401.

  1. Peacock J., Laue L., Chrousos G.P., Gallucci W., Norton N. (1987) Glucocorticoid Receptor Mediates

Rat Sarcoma Growth. Surgical Forum 38: 396-398.

  1. *Gold P.W., Goodwin F., Chrousos, G.P. (1988) Clinical and Biochemical Manifestations of Depression:

Relationship to the Neurobiology of Stress. (Part I) N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 348-353.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1988) Endocrine Tumors, In: Pizzo P.A. and Poplack D.G. (Eds) Principles and Practice

of Pediatric Oncology. J.B. Lippincott Co., New York. 733-757.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1988) Cushing’s Syndrome. In: Conn’s Current Therapy, Ed. R.E. Rakel,

61

W.B. Saunders Co., New York. 525-529.

  1. Margioris A., Grino M., Gold P.W., Rabin D., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Human Placenta and the

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis. In: Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress, Plenum Publ.

Corp. New York. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 245: 389-398.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Gold P.W. (1988) The Concept of Stress and Its Historical Development.

In: Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress, Plenum Publ. Corp. New York. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.

245: 3-7.

  1. Rabin D., Gold P.W., Margioris A., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Stress and Reproduction: Interactions

Between the Stress and Reproductive Axes. In: Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress, Plenum

Publ. Corp. New York. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 245: 377-387.

  1. Nieman L.K., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Corticotropin Releasing Factors. In: Central

Nervous System Endocrinology. M. Cohen and P. Foa (Eds). Springer-Verlag Co., New York, NY 14-

45.

  1. Bernardini R., Luger A., Gold P.W., Chiarenza A., Legakis J., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Cytokines

Stimulate Pituitary-adrenal Function via Activation of the CRH Neuron. In: New Trends in Brain and

Female Reproductive Function. F. Petraglia (Ed) CIG Edizioni Internationali, Milan p. 35-39.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Laue L., Kawai S., Nieman L.K., Udelsman R., Loriaux D.L.(1988) Glucocorticoids and

Glucocorticoid Antagonists: Lessons from RU 486. Kidney International Vol. 34, Suppl 26, p. S-18-S-

23.

  1. Laue L., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Glucocorticoid Antagonists and the Role of

Glucocorticoids at the Resting and Stress State. In: Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. and Gold P.W. (Eds)

Mechanism of Physical and Emotional Stress. Plenum Press, New York, NY. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 245:

225-235.

  1. Gold P.W., Pigott T.A., Kling M.K., Kalogeras K., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Basic and Clinical Studies

with Corticotropin Releasing Hormone: Implications for a Possible Role in Panic Disorder. Psychiatr.

Clin. North America Vol. 11(2) 327-334.

  1. Calogero A., Bernardini R., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Regulation of CRH Secretion in Vitro:

Potential Clinical Implications. In: Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress. Plenum Publ., New

York. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 245: 167-181.

  1. Udelsman R., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Hormonal Response to Surgical Stress. In: Mechanisms of

Physical and Emotional Stress. Plenum Publ., New York. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 245: 267-272.

  1. Luger A., Deuster P.A., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Hormonal Responses to the

Stress of Exercise. Adv. Med. Biol. 245: 273-283.

  1. Susman E.J., Nottelman E.D., Dorn L.D., Inoff-Germain G., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Physiological and

Behavioral Aspects of Stress in Adolescence. In: Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress.

Plenum Press New York. Adv. Exp. Biol. Med. 245: 341-352.

  1. Gold P.W., Whitfield H.J., Kling M.A., Demitrack M.A., Brandt H.A., Chrousos G.P. (1988) The

Relevance of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone to Normal Physiology and to Pathophysiology of

Adrenal Function. In A.F. Schatzberg and C.B. Nemeroff (eds) The Hypothaamic-Pituitary-Adrenal

Axis. Physiology, Pathophysiology and Psychiatric Implications. Raven Press, New York, p. 101-113.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M.A., Demitrack M., Whitfield H.J., Kalogeras K., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P.

(1988) Clinical Studies with Corticotropin Releasing Hormone: Implications for Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal Dysfunction in Depression and Related Disorders. In: Ganten D., and Pfaff D. (eds)

Neuroendocrinology of Mood. Current Topics in Endocrinology Vol. 8, Springer-Verlag, New York p.

55-77.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M., Whitfield H., Rabin D., Margioris A., Kalogeras D., Demitrack M., Loriaux D.L.,

62

Chrousos G.P. (1988) The Clinical Implications of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone. In:

Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress. Plenum Publ. New York. Adv. Exp. Biol. Med. 245:

507-519.

  1. Brandon D.D., Markwick A., Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L. (1988) Glucocorticoid Resistance in a Family

and New World Primates. Cancer Res. (suppl). 49: 2203S-2213S.

  1. *Gold P.W., Goodwin F.K., Chrousos G.P. (1988) Clinical and Biochemical Manifestations of

Depression: Relationship to the Neurolobiology of Stress. (Part 2). N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 413-420.

  1. Laue L., Kawai S., Udelsman R., Nieman L.K., Brandon D.D., Gallucci W.T., Gold P.W., Loriaux D.L.,

Chrousos G.P. (1989) Glucocorticoid Antagonists: Pharmacological Attributes of the Prototype

Antiglucocorticoid RU 486. Chapter 13. In: Lichtenstein L.M., Claman H., Oronsky A. and Schleimer

R.P. (Eds) Antiinflammatory Steroid Action: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Academic Press, NY p. 303-

329.

  1. Kamilaris T., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Tests of Adrenal Function. In “Diagnostic Endocrinology” Eds

W.T. Moore and R. Eastman. B.C. Decker Inc. Toronto, CA. 79-109.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Laue L., Nieman L.K., Udelsman R., Kawai S., and Loriaux D.L. (1989) Clinical

Applications of RU 486, A Prototype Glucocorticoid and Progestin Antagonist. In: F. Mantero

  1. Takeda, B.A. Scoggins, E.G. Biglieri and J. Funder (Eds) The Adrenal and Hypertension: From

Cloning to Clinic. Serono Symposia Series, Raven Press, NY p. 273-284.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1989) Clinical Implications of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone. F. Mantero

and J. Funder (Eds) The Adrenal Cortex: From Cloning to Clinic. Serono Symposia Series, Raven

Press, NY p. 259-272.

  1. Smith M.A., Kling M.A., Whitfield H.J., Brandt H.A., Demitrack M.A., Geracioti T.D., Chrousos G.P.,

Gold P.W. (1989) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone. From Endocrinology to Psychobiology. Horm.

Res. 31: 66-71.

  1. Gold P.W., Altemus M, Goodwin F.K., Chrousos G.P. (1989) Brain-Mind Interactions. N. Engl. J. Med.

(Letter to the Editor) 320: 869-870.

  1. Kling M.A., Whitfield H.J., Brandt H.A., Demitrack M.A., Kalogeras K., Geracioti T.D., Perini G.I.,

Calabrese J.R., Chrousos G.P. and P.W. Gold (1989) Effects of Glucocorticoid Antagonism with RU 486

on Pituitary-adrenal Function in Patients with Major Depression: Time-dependent Enhancement of

Plasma ACTH Secretion. Psychopharmacology Bull. 25: 466-472.

  1. Sternberg E.M., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Young W.S., Bernardni R., Calogero A.E., Hill

J.M., Kamilaris T., Listwak S.J. (1988) The Role of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in

Susceptibility to Arthritis. IN: Cushing’s Syndrome and Other Hypercortisolemic States. Raven Press,

New York. p. 183-188.

  1. Bernardini R., Rabin D., Margioris A., Grino M., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1989) The Hypothalamicpituitary-

adrenal Axis in Aging. In: Psychoneuroendocrinology of Aging. Fidia Research Series Vol.

16 Springer Verlag, Padova, p. 75-81.

  1. Kling M.A., Perini G.I., Demitrack M.A., Geracioti T., Linnoila M., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1989)

Stress-responsive Neurohormonal Systems and the Symptom Complex of Affective Disorder.

Psychopharmacol. Bull. 25: 12-18.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Udelsman R., Margioris A., Gold P.W., Oldfield E.H., Schuermeyer T.H., Schulte H.M.,

Dopman J., Loriaux D.L. (1989) Corticotropin-releasing Factor. Physiological and Clinical

Implications. In: E.E. Muller and R.M. MacLeod (Eds). Neuroendocrine Perspectives. Vol 7, page 49-

76 Elsevier Biomedical Press, New York.

  1. Cutler G.B. Jr., Schiebinger R.J., Albertson B.D., Cassorla G.B., Chrousos G.P., Comite F., Booth J.D.,

Levine J., Hobson W.C., Loriaux D.L. (1990) The Adrenarche (Human and Animal). In: “Second

International Conference on the Control of the Onset of Puberty”, Eds M. Grumbach, P. Sizonenko, and

63

  1. Aubert. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, p. 506-533.
  2. Loughlin T., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Hypoaldosteronism, In: Becker K.L. (Ed) Principles and Practice of

Endocrinology and Metabolism. J.B. Lippincott Co., New York. 643-649.

  1. Cassorla F., Chrousos G.P. (1990) The Adrenogenital Syndrome. In: Becker K.L. (ed.) Principles and

Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. J.B. Lippincott Co., New York. 604-613.

  1. Bernardini R., Calogero A.E., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Mediators of the Immune Response.

Relationships with Hypothalamis Corticotropin Releasing Hormone and Pituitary Adrenal Corticotropin.

In: Cushing’s syndrome and Other Hypercortisolemic States. Eds. D. Ludecke, G. Chrousos and G.

Tolis. Raven Press, New York p. 15-20.

  1. Luger A., Deuster P., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Hypercortisolism of Exercise: In: Cushing’s syndrome and

Other Hypercortisolemic States. Eds: D. Ludecke, G. Chrousos and G. Tolis, Raven Press, New York p.

77-82.

  1. Margioris A.N., Brockmann G., Gomez M.J., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Paracrine Effects of Placental

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone. In: Cushing’s Syndrome and Other Hypercortisolemic States. Eds:

  1. Ludecke, G Chrousos and G. Tolis, Raven Press, New York p. 189-192.
  2. Meyerhoff J.L., Oleshansky M.A., Kalogeras K.T., Mougey E.H., Chrousos G.P. and Granger L.G.

(1990) Neuroendocrine Responses to Emotional Stress: Possible Interactions Between Circulating

Factors and Anterior Pituitary Hormone Release. In Circulating Regulatory Factors and Neuroendocrine

Function: Advances in Experimental Biology and Medicine, ed. by J.C. Porter and D. Jezova, Plenum

Press, 274: 91-111.

  1. Coutifaris C., Ringler G.E., Reed K., Margioris A., Chrousos G.P., Strauss J.F. III (1990) The Placenta

and Stress: Effects of Adenylate Cyclase Activators and of Glucocorticoids on the Endocrine Function

of Trophoblastic Cells in Culture. In: Neuroendocrine Regulation of Reproduction. Eds: S.S.C. Yen

and W.W. Vale. Serono Symposia USA, Norwell, Mass. p. 95-103.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1990) Glucocorticoid Resistance. Birth Defects Encyclopedia. Alan R. Liss. Inc. New

York. 784-785.

  1. Margioris A.N., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Cushing’s syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation. In: Endocrine

Hypertension. E. Biglieri (editor), Raven Press, N.W. 99-111.

  1. Sternberg E., Wilder R., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1990) A Defect in the Central Component of the

Immune System-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis Feedback Loop is Associated with Susceptibility to

Arthritis and Inflammatory Disease. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 594: 289-92.

  1. Susman E., Nottelman E., Dorn L., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1989) The Physiology of Stress

andBehavioral Development. In: Coping with Uncertainty: Biological, Behavioral and Developmental

Perspectives. D.S. Palermo and J. Kagan (Eds). Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Inc., Hillsdale, N.J., 17-38.

  1. Sternberg E.M., Wilder R.L., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1991) Stress Responses and the Pathogenesis

of Arthritis. In: Stress Neuropeptides, and Systemic Disease. Eds. J. A. McCubbin, P. Kaufman and C.

Nemeroff, Academic Press, 287-300.

  1. Hurley D., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Glucocorticoid Resistance. Current Therapy in Endocrinology and

Metabolism. W. Bardin (Ed.) B.C. Decker, Inc., Philadelphia, 150-151.

  1. Gomez M.T., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Cushing’s Syndrome. Current Therapy in Endocrinology and

Metabolism. W. Bardin (Ed.) B.C. Decker, Inc., Philadelphia, 134-137.

  1. Kamilaris T., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Cushing’s Syndrome in R-Rakel (Ed.) Conn’s Current Therapy W.B.

Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 572-578.

  1. Gomez M.T., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency. In: Conn’s Current Diagnosis.

W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 865-868.

64

  1. Laue L., Gold P.W., Richmond A., Chrousos G.P. (1991) The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in

Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa In: L.A. Barness (Ed.), Advances in Pediatrics 287-316.

  1. Flack M., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Neoplasms of the Adrenal Cortex In: Cancer Medicine, R. Holland et
  2. (Eds.) Third Edition. Lea and Fibinger Inc., New York Vol 1, 1147-1153.
  3. Liapi C., Chrousos G.P. (1992) “Glucocorticoids”. Chapter 41. In: Pediatric Pharmacology, S.J. Yaffe

and J.V. Aranda (Eds). 2nd Edition Saunders Publ Co. New York 466-475.

  1. Karalis K., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1992) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Function in Eating

Disorders. In: Psychiatry: A World Perspective Vol. 2 Neurosciences in Psychiatry. C. Stefanis, C.

Soldatos, A. Rabavilas. Excerpta Medica 537-544.

  1. Stratakis C., Karl M., Hurley D., Accili D., Vamvakopoulos N., Rorer E., Constantine K., Taylor S.,

Chrousos G.P. (1991) A Point Mutation in the Hormone Binding Domain of the Glucocorticoid Receptor

in Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance. Horizons in Endocrinology. Eds., M. Maggi and V. Geenen,

Serono Symposia Series, Vol. 76:3-8.

  1. Nottelman E., Susman E., Chrousos G.P. (1990) Hormones and Adjustment in Puberty. In: Adolescence

and Puberty, J. Bancroft and J. Reinisch (Eds). Kinsey Institute Symposia Series 88-123.

  1. Rabin D., Chrousos, G.P. (1991) Adrenal Androgens In: Lerner R., Peterson A., and Brooks-Gunn J.

Eds,

  1. The Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Garland Publ. New York. Vol. 1:53-55.
  2. Rabin D., Chrousos G.P. Gonadal Androgens. (1991) In: Lerner R., Petersen A and Brooks-Gunn J. Eds,

The Encyclopedia of Adolescence. Garland Publ. New York. Vol 1:56-59.

  1. Gold P.W., Kling M.A., Whitfield H.J., Demitrack M.A., Kalogeras K., Loriaux D.L., Chrousos G.P.

(1988) The Clinical Implications of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone. In: Progress in Endocrinology

Imura H., Shizuma K, Yoshida S. (Eds) Elsevier Science Publishers, Excerpta Medica New York 897-

914.

  1. Margioris A., Stratakis C., Chrousos G.P. (1991) Glucocorticoids and Other Adrenal Steroids. Chapter
  2. In: Human Pharmacology: Molecular to Clinical. L. Winegard, T. Brody, J. Larner and A. Schwartz

(Eds). Mosby Yearbook, St. Louis, p 484-493.

  1. Johnson E.O., Kamilaris T.C., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1992) Mechanisms of Stress: A Dynamic

Overview of Hormonal and Behavioral Homeostasis. J. Neurosc. Biobehav. Rev. 16:115-130.

  1. Perini G.I., Kling M.A., Calogero A.E., Devinski O., Smith M.A., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1990)

Effects of Carbamazepine on the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis: Potential Relevance of its

Mechanisms of Action. In: Canger R, Sacchetti E., Perini GI, Canevini MP, (Eds.) Carbamazepine: A

Bridge between Epilepsy and Psychiatric Disorders. Origgio: Ciba-Geigy Edizioni, 119-123.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1993) Endocrine Tumors, In: Pizzo P.A., and Poplack D.G. (Eds). Principles and

Practice of Pediatric Oncology, J.B. Lippincott Co., New York, 2nd Edition 889-912.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1992). The Concepts of Stress and Stress System Disorders: Overview of

Physical and Behavioral Homeostasis. JAMA 267:1244-1252.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1992) Regulation and Dysregulation of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis: The

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Perspective. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North

America 21:833-858.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Dorn L. (1993) Puberty, Adolescence, and the Stress Response. In: Frajese G.,

Steinberger E. and Rodriguez R. (Eds) Reproductive Medicine. Serono Symposia Series, Raven Press,

New York pp. 53-62.

65

  1. Karl M., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance: An overview. Exp. Clin.

Endocrinol. 101:30-35.

  1. *Sternberg E.M, Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L., Gold P.W. (1992) The Stress Response and the Regulation

of Inflammatory Disease: NIH Combined Clinical Staff Conference. Ann. Int. Med. 117:854-866.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Karl M. (1992) The Molecular Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Resistance. In: Saez J.

(Ed) Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Adrenal Cortex. John Libbey Eurotext Limited. London.

Colloques INSERM 222:215-225.

  1. Sharara F.I., Chrousos G.P., Patronas N. (1992) Watchful Waiting and Craniopharyngioma. (Letter to the

Editor) Ann. Int. Med. 117:876-877.

  1. Mastorakos G., Webster E.L., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone and Its Receptors

in the Ovary: Physiological Implications. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 687:20-30.

  1. Dorn L.D., Chrousos G.P. (1993) The Endocrinology of Stress and Stress System Disorders in

Adolescence. In: R. Rosenfield (Editor) Adolescent Endocrinology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Clinics of North America 22:685-700.

  1. Marini J.C., Bordenick S., Heavner G., Rose S.R., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Evaluation of the Growth

Hormone Axis in Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Am. J. Med. Genet. 45:261-264.

  1. Karl M., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Chapter 27, Molecular Aspects of Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance.

In: B. Weintraub (Editor) Molecular Endocrinology: Basic Concepts and Clinical Correlations. Raven

Press, New York, pp. 445-454.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Detera-Wadleigh S., Karl M. (1993) NIH Conference of the Combined Clinical Staff:

Syndromes of Glucocorticoid Resistance. Ann. Int. Med., 119:1113-1124.

  1. Chicanza I.C., Chrousos G.P., Panayi G.S. (1992) Abnormal Neurendocrine-Immune Communications in

Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 22:635-637.

  1. Zeiger M.A., Pass H.I., Doppman J.D., Nieman L.K., Chrousos G.P., Cutler G.B., Jensen R.T., Norton

J.A. (1992) Surgical Strategy in the Management of Non-Small Cell Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic

Hormone Syndrome. Surgery 112:994-1000.

  1. *Boumpas D.T., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L., Cupps T.R., Balow J.E. (1993) NIH Conference of the

Combined Clinical Staff. Glucocorticoid Therapy of Immune-Related Diseases: Basic and Clinical

Correlates. Ann. Inter. Med. 119:1198-1208.

  1. *Vamvakopoulos N.C., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Hormonal Regulation of Human Corticotropin Releasing

Hormone Gene Expression. Implications for the Stress Response and Immune/Inflammatory Reaction.

Endocrine Reviews, 15:409-420.

  1. Karl M., Accili A., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Familial Glucocorticoid Resistance and Its Molecular Basis.

In: New Perspectives in Endocrinology, Serono Symposia, A. Debellis and K.B. Marschke eds., Raven

Press, New York, Vol. 99, pp. 83-91.

  1. Karl M., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Mutation Analysis of Steroid Hormone Receptors. In

Neurobiology of Steroids, deKloet E.R. and W. Suntanto eds., Vol. of Methods in Neurosciences,

Academic Press 22:226-241.

  1. Friedman T.C., Chrousos G.P. (1993) Transsphenoidal Resection in Cushing’s Disease: Definition of

Success. (Letter to the Editor) Clinical Endocrinology, 39:701.

  1. *Chrousos G.P. (1995) The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Immune-Mediated Inflammation.

New England Journal of Medicine 332:1351-1362.

  1. Margioris A., Gravanis A., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids. Chapter 35.

In: Human Pharmacology: Molecular to Clinical. T. Brody, J. Larner, K. Minneman, H.C. Neu (Eds)

66

Mosby-Yearbook, St. Louis p. 473-481.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Corticosteroid Therapy, Nonendocrine Disease, and

Corticosteroid Withdrawal. Current Therapy in Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mosby-Year Book Inc.,

St. Louis p.120-124.

  1. Arai K., Chrousos G.P., (1994) Glucocorticoid Resistance. Chapter 5, Baillere’s Clinical Endocrinology

and Metabolism. Vol. 8, No.2. Baillere Tindal London p. 317-331.

  1. Arai K., Chrousos G.P., (1995) Syndromes of Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Resistance.

Steroids 60:173-179.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P., (1996) Glucocorticoid Therapy and Withdrawal. Chapter 6 In:

R.C.Bone. Current Practice of Medicine. Current Medicine, Inc., Philadelphia, IV 6.1-6.6.

  1. Bamberger C.M., Chrousos G.P., (1994) Glucocorticoid Resistance. (Letter to the Editor) Annals of

Internal Medicine 102:1047-1048.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Interleukin-6 Elevation in Critically Ill Infants with

Sepsis and Necrotizing Enterocolitis. (Letter to the Editor) J Pediatrics 125:504.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Physiology of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Health and

Dysregulation in Psychiatric and Autoimmune Disorders. Endocrin. Metab. Clin. N. Amer. 23:451-466.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1996) Chapter 1. Organization and Integration of the Endocrine System. In: Pediatric

Endocrinology, Sperling M., ed., Saunders Co.: Philadelphia, 1-14.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Diagnosis and Treatment of Cushing’s Disease. In: The Pituitary

Gland, H. Imura (ed), 2nd Edition, Raven Press: New York, p. 491-508.

  1. Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P (1995) Chapter 79, Adrenal Hyperandrogenism. In: Reproductive
  2. Endocrinology, Surgery, and Technology. Adashi E., Rock J., and Rosenwaks Z. eds. Raven Press, New

York, p. 1539-1553.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Karl M., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P. (1994) Glucocorticoid Resistance in Humans.

Elucidation of the Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Pathophysiology. Ann N.Y. Acad Sci

746:362-376.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Stress, Endocrine Manifestations and Diseases. Chapter 3. In:

Handbook of Stress Medicine. Cooper C.L., ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc., 61-65.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Neuroendocrinology of Stress: Implications for

Growth and Development. Hormone Research 43:163-167.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cushing’s

Syndrome. Current Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2:203-213.

  1. Papanicolaou D., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Interactions of the Endocrine and Immune Systems in Children

and Young Adults. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 7:440-444.

  1. Karl M., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Experimental and Clinical Models of CRH-Induced Pituitary Tumors. In:

Oncogenesis and Molecular Biology of Pituitary Tumors. S. Melmed (ed) Front. Horm. Res. Vol. 20

Karger, Basel, 54-71.

  1. Tsigos C., Papanicolaou D., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of

Cushing’s Syndrome. Bailliere’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 9:315-336.

  1. Tsigos C., Arai K., Latronico A.C., Webster E., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Receptors for Melanocortin

Peptides in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Skin. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 771:352-363.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1995) The Neuroendocrinology of the Stress Response. Chapter 6. In: NIDA

67

Alcohol Research Monograph: Stress, Gender, and Alcohol Seeking Behavior. W.A. Hunt and S.

Zachari, ed., CSR, Inc., Washington, D.C., 29:103-124.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1996) The Neuroendocrinology of Stress. In: Women, Health and Disability.
  2. Krotowski, M. Nosek, M. Turk (eds), Brookes Publishers, Baltimore, 203-221
  3. Flack MR, Chrousos G.P. (1996) Neoplasms of the Adrenal Cortex. Chapter 101. Cancer Medicine, 4th

Edition. R. Holland et al. (eds) Lea and Fibinger, New York, 1563-1570.

  1. Peeke P.M., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Hypercortisolism and Obesity. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 771:665-676.
  2. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Neuroendocrinology of Stress and the Immune Response. In: Root

A., ed. Proceedings of the 1994 NCGS Investigators Meeting. Gardiner-Caldwell, Califon, NJ, p. 4-7.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Vamvakopoulos NC, Chrousos G.P. (1995) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone, Stress and

Depression. In: Bailly D., ed. Neuroendocrine Aspects of Mood Disorders. Ardix Médical, Levallois p.

119-152 (in french).

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos, G.P. (1997) Endocrine Tumors. In: Pizzo P.A., Poplack D.G., eds. Principles

and Practice of Pediatric Oncology, 3rd edition. J.B. Lippincott Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, p. 947-

976.

  1. Tsigos C., Kamilaris T., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Adrenal Diseases. In: Moore W.T., Eastman R., eds.

Diagnostic Endocrinology, 2nd edition. B.C. Decker Inc., Toronto, p. 123-156.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1996) Differential Diagnosis and Management of Cushing’s Syndrome. Ann

Rev Med 47:443-61

  1. Chrousos, G.P. (1995) Cytokine Therapy in Septic Shock. (Letter to the Editor) N. Engl. J. Med.,

333:942-943.

  1. Bamberger C.M., Chrousos G.P. (1995) The Glucocorticoid Receptor and RU 486 in man. Ann. N.Y.

Acad. Sci. 761;296-311.

  1. Bamberger C.M., Bamberger A.M., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Dominant Negative Inhibitors of the

Glucocorticoid Receptor. In: De Bellis A., Schipani E. (eds.) Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol. 14.

Serono Symposia Publication, Rome, Italy, pp. 129-139.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Neuroendocrinology and Pathophysiology of the Stress System.

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 771:1-18.

  1. Cizza G., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Aging is Associated in the 344/N Fischer Rat with

Decreased Stress Responsivity of Central and Peripheral Catecholaminergic Systems and Impairment of

the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 771:491-511.

  1. Crofford L.J., Sano H., Karalis K., Webster E.A., Friedman T.C., Chrousos G.P., Wilder R.L. (1995)

Local Expression of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in Inflammatory Arthritis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.

771:459-471.

  1. Mastorakos G., Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Effects of the Immune/Inflammatory Reaction

on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 771:438-448.

  1. Carter C.S., DeVries A.C., Taymans S.E., Roberts R.L., Williams J.R., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Adrenal

Corticoid Hormones and the Development and Expression of Mammalian Monogamy. Ann. N.Y. Acad.

Sci. 771:82-91.

  1. Reincke M., Lehmann R., Karl M., Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P., Allolio B. (1995) Severe Illness.

Neuroendocrinology. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 771:556-569.

  1. *Latronico A.C., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Adrenocortical Tumors (Extensive Personal Experience Article).
  2. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:1317-1324.

68

  1. Gold P.W., Licinio J., Wong M.L., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in the

Pathophysiology of Melancholic and Atypical Depression and in the Mechanism of Action of

Antidepressant Drugs. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 771:716-729.

  1. Marini J.C., Bordenick S., Chrousos G.P. (1995) Endocrine Aspects of Growth Deficiency in OI.

Connective Tissue Research 31:S55-S57.

  1. Masi A, Chrousos G.P. (1996) The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal-Glucocorticoid Axis in Rheumatoid

Arthritis. (Editorial) J. Rheumatol. 23:577-581.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Castro M., Leung D.Y.M., Webster E., Kino T., Bamberger C., Elliot S., Stratakis C.,

Karl M. (1996) Molecular Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Resistance/Hypersensitivity. Am. J. Resp.

Crit. Care Med. 154:S39-S44.

  1. *Bamberger C.M., Schulte H.M., Chrousos G.P.. (1996) Molecular Determinants of Glucocorticoid

Receptor Function and Tissue Sensitivity. Endo. Rev. 17:221-244.

  1. Torpy D.J., Chrousos G.P. (1996) The Three-Way Interactions Between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-

Adrenal and Gonadal Axes and the Immune System. Ballière’s Clinical Rheumatology 10:181-198.

  1. Masi A.T., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Dilemmas of Low-Dosage Glucocorticoid Therapy in Rheumatoid

Arthritis: Considerations of Timing. (Leader) Annals of Rheumatic Diseases 56:1-4.

  1. Cizza G., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (1997) High-Dose Transdermal Estrogen, Corticotropin- Releasing

Hormone and Postnatal Depression (Letter to the Editor). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:704.

  1. Cizza G., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Anxiety and Short Stature (Letter to Editor). Pediatrics 99:500.
  2. Gold P.W., Wong M-L, Chrousos G.P., Licinio J. (1996) Stress System Abnormalities in Melancholic

and Atypical Depression: Molecular, Pathophysiological, and Therapeutic Implications (Editorial). Mol.

Psychiatry 1:257-264.

  1. Cizza G., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Dependent Cushing’s Syndrome: Chapter
  2. Endocrine Neoplasms, Andrew Arnold, Ed. Klawer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 25-40.
  3. Latronico A.C., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Neoplasms of the Adrenal Cortex. Chapter 11. In: Endocrine

Neoplasms, Andrew Arnold, Ed., Klawer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp. 217-237.

  1. Torpy D., Papanicolaou D., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Sexual Dimorphism of the Human Stress Response

May Be Due to Estradiol-mediated Stimulation of Hypothalamic Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

Synthesis. (Letter to the Editor) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 82:982.

  1. Dorn L., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Neurobiology of Stress: Understanding Regulation of Affect During

Female Biological Transitions. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 15:29-45.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Familial Lentiginosis Syndromes: Link to Inherited Neoplasias

and Identification of a Genetic locus. Hellenic Medical Journal 1:15-19.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Neuroendocrinology of Stress: Its Relation to the Hormonal Milieu, Growth,

and Development. Growth, Genetics & Hormones 13:1-8.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Chapter 13. Hypothalamic Hormones: GnRH, TRH, GHRH,

SRIF, CRH, and Dopamine. Endocrinology: Basic and Clinical Principles, Conn P.M. and Melmed S.

(Eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. 185-209.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Corticosteroid Therapy, Nonendocrine Disease, and

Corticosteroid Withdrawal. Current Therapy in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sixth Edition, Bardin

C.W. (Editor), Mosby, St. Louis, MO 138-142

  1. De Castro M., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Glucocorticoid Resistance. Current Therapy in Endocrinology and

69

Metabolism, Sixth Edition, Bardin C.W. (Editor), Mosby, St. Louis, MO 188-189.

  1. Torpy D.J., Chrousos G.P. (1997) General Adaptation Syndrome: An Overview. Endocrinology of

Critical Disease, Ober K.P. (Editor), Human Press, Totowa, NJ 1-24.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Future of Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology. Ann. New York Acad.

Sci., 816:4-8.

  1. Mastorakos G., Ghizzoni L., Webster E.L., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Autocrine-Paracrine Role of Ovarian

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 816:22-26.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Webster E., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-

Adrenal Axis and the Female Reproductive System. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 816: 27-41.

  1. Magiakou M.A., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Cushing Syndrome: Differential Diagnosis and

Treatment. Wierman M.E. (Editor), Diseases of the Pituitary: Diagnosis and Treatment, Humana Press,

Totowa, NJ 179-202.

  1. *Clauw D.J., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Chronic Pain and Fatigue Syndromes: Overlapping Clinical and

Neuroendocrine Features and Potential Pathogenic Mechanisms. NeuroImmunoModulation 4:134-153.

  1. *Papanicolaou D.A., Wilder R.L., Manolagas S.C., Chrousos G.P. (1998) The Pathophysiologic Roles

of Interleukin-6 in Humans. Ann. Intern. Med. 128:127-137.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1997) Adrenal Hyperandrogenism. In: Up-to-date in Endocrinology and Diabetes (CD

ROM). Editor-in-Chief, Burton D. Rose. Endocrine Society, Bethesda, MD.

  1. Licinio J., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P., Sternberg E.M. (1997) Forty Years of Neuroendocrinology

(Editorial). Mol. Psychiatry 2:347-349.

  1. Webster E.L., Elenkov I.J., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone in

Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions. Mol. Psychiatry 2:368-372.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1997) Stress as a Medical and Scientific Idea and Its Implications. Advances in

Pharmacology 42:552-556.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1997) Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency. In: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary

Insufficiency, S.W.J. Lamberts (Editor), Bioscientifica, Bristol, UK 39-61.

  1. Pillemer S.R., Bradley L.A., Crofford L.J., Moldofsky H., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Neuroscience and

Endocrinology of Fibromyalgia. Arthritis & Rheumatism 40:1928-1939.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1997) The Case of Urinary Growth Hormone (Editorial). Endocrine

Practice 3:389-391.

  1. *Torpy D.J., Chrousos G.P. (1997) Stress and Critical Illness: the Integrated Immune/Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Response. J. Intensive Care Med. 12:225-238.

  1. *Chrousos G.P. (1998) Ultradian, Circadian and Stress-Related Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Activity: A Dynamic Digital-to-Analog Modulation (Editorial). Endocrinology 139:437-440.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Torpy D., Gold P.W. (1998) Interactions Between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal

Axis and the Female Reproductive System:Clinical Implications. Ann. Intern. Med. 129:229-240.

  1. Bornstein S.R., Torpy D.J., Chrousos G.P., Licinio J., Engelmann L. (1997) Leptin Levels are Elevated

Despite Low Thyroid Hormone Levels in the “Euthyroid Sick” Syndrome (Letter to the Editor). J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 82:4278-4279.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1998) Stressors, Stress and Neuroendocrine Integration of the Adaptive Response: 1997

Hans Selye Memorial Lecture. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 851:311-335.

70

  1. Shupnik M.A., Chrousos G.P., Siragy H.M. (1997) Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids. In:

Human Pharmacology: Molecular to Clinical, Third Edition, T.M. Brody, J. Larner, K.P. Minneman

(Eds), Mosby-Year Book, St. Louis, MO 485-497.

  1. Tsigos C., Chrousos G.P. (1998) ACTH Resistance Syndromes. In: G Proteins, Receptors, and Disease.

A.M. Spiegel (Ed), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ 261-269.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease. In: Saunders Manual of

Pediatric Practice. L. Finberg (Ed), W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA 807-809.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (1998) A Healthy Body in a Healthy Mind- and Vice Versa-: The Damaging

Power of “Uncontrollable” Stress (Editorial). J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83:1842-1845.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Stratakis C.A. (1998) Carney Complex and the Familial Lentiginosis Syndromes: Link

to Inherited Neoplasias and Developmental Disorders, and Genetic Loci. J. Intern. Med. 243:573-579.

  1. Meduri G.V., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Duration of Glucocorticoid Treatment and Outcome in Sepsis: Is the

Right Drug Used the Wrong Way? (Editorial). Chest . 114:355-360.

  1. *Torpy D.J., Bornstein S.R., Cizza G., Chrousos G.P. (1998) The Effects of Glucocorticoids on Leptin

Levels in Humans May Be Restricted to Acute Pharmacologic Dosing. (Letter to the Editor) J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 83:1821-1822.

  1. Webster E.L., Torpy D.J., Elenkov I.J., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and

Inflammation. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 840:21-32.

  1. Leung D.Y.M., De Castro M., Szefler S.J., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid-

Resistant Asthma. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 840:735-746.

  1. Reincke M., Arlt M., Heppner C.A., Petzke F., Chrousos G.P., Allolio B. (1998) Neuroendocrine

Dysfunction in African Trypanosomiasis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 840:809-821.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Harris A.G. (1998) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Suppression and Inhaled

Corticosteroid Therapy. Part I. General Principles. Neuroimmunodulation 5:277-287.

  1. *Chrousos G.P., Harris A.G., (1998) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis Suppression and Inhaled

Corticosteroid Therapy. Part II. Review of the Literature. Neuroimmunodulation 5:288-308.

  1. Orban Z., Bornstein S.R., Chrousos G.P. (1998) The Interaction Between Leptin and the Hypothalamic-

Pituitary-Thyroid Axis. Horm. Metab. Res. 30:231-235.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Adrenal Diseases. In: Principles of Molecular Medicine, L.

Jameson (Ed.), Humana Press. Totowa, NJ., p. 495-503.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (1998) Neuroendocrine Alterations Associated with Altered Sleep, Mood, and Pain

Perception. In: The Neuroscience and Endocrinology of Fibromyalgia, S. R. Pillemer (ed.), The Haworth

Press, Inc., Binghampton, NY, p. 51-55 and. J. Musculoskeletal Pain 6:51-55, 1998.

  1. Diamanti-Kandarakis E., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Cushing’s Syndrome and Androgen Excess. In:

Androgen Excess Disorders in Women. R. Azziz, J.E. Nestler, D. Dewailly (eds). Lippincott-Raven

Publishers, Philadelphia, p.569-584.

  1. Margioris A., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Adrenal Disorders. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Part II.

Systemic Diseases. Vinten P.J., Bruyn G.W. (Eds.) Elsevier Science 26:205-220

  1. *Gold PW, Chrousos G.P. (1999) The Endocrinology of Melancholic and Atypical Depression: Relation

to Neurocircuitry and Somatic Consequences. Proc. Assn. Amer. Phys., 111:22-34

  1. *Bornstein S.R., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Adrenocorticotropin ACTH- and Non-ACTH-Mediated

Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex: Neural and Immune Inputs. J. Clin. Endo. Metab., 84:1729-1736.

71

  1. Chrousos G.P. (2000)The Role of Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in the

Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Neuro-Endocrine and Target Tissue-related Causes (Review).

Intern. J. Obesity, 24:S50-S55

  1. Tsigos, C., Kyrou I, Papanicolaou D., Chrousos G.P. (1998) Prolonged Suppression of Corticosteroidbinding

Globulin by Recombinant Human Interleukin-6 in Man. [Letter to the Editor]. J. Clin. Endo.

Metab 83:3379.

  1. Masi A.T., Chrousos G.P., Bornstein S.R. (1999) Enigmas of Adrenal Androgen and Glucocorticoid

Dissociation in Premenopausal Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis. [Editorial] J. Rheumatology. 26:247-250.

  1. Torpy, D.J., Stratakis, C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Hyper- and Hypoaldosteronism. Vit. Horm. 57:177-

216.

  1. Mastorakos G., Bamberger C., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Neuroendocrine Regulation of the Immune Process.

In: Plotnikoff N.P., Faith R.F., Murgo A.J., Good R.A., (Eds) Cytokines, Stress and Immunity. CRC

Press Boca Raton, Fla., p.17-37.

  1. *Bornstein S.R., Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (1999) Adrenocortical Tumors: Recent Advances in

Basic Concepts and Clinical Management. Ann. Intern. Med. 130:759-771.

  1. *Merke D.P., Bornstein S.R., Braddock D., Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Adrenal Lymphocytic Infiltration and

Adrenocortical Tumors in a Patient with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. (Letter to the Editor) N. Engl. J.

Med. 340:1121-1122.

  1. Franchimont, D.P., Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Glucocorticoid Resistance and Hypersensitivity.

Contemporary Endocrinology: Hormone Resistance Syndromes. (Ed. L. Jameson) Humana Press,

Totowa N.J., p.259-271

  1. Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Reproductive/placental corticotropin-releasing hormone and its clinical

implications, Am. J. Obstetrics Gynecol. p.S249-S250.

  1. Papanicolaou D., Chrousos, G. P. Cushing’s Syndrome (1999) Rakel’s Current Therapy. Editor Robert
  2. Rakel. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia p.631-637.
  3. Chrousos, G. P. , Gold, P.W. (1999) The Inhibited Child “Syndrome”. Thoughts on Its Potential

Pathogenesis and Sequelae. In: Extreme Fear, Shyness and Social Phobia: Origins, Biological

Mechanisms, and Clinical Outcomes, (eds.) L. A. Schmidt, J. Schulkin, Oxford Univ. Press, New York

p.193-200

  1. Koch, C.A., Bornstein, S.R., Pacak, K, Chrousos, G.P. (1998) How does metyrapone decrease seizures?

(Letter to the Editor) Neurosurg. Rev. 21:302-303.

  1. Chrousos, G. P. (1999) Glucocorticoid Therapy and Withdrawal, Current Practice of Medicine, 1:291-

296

  1. *Elenkov, I.J., Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Stress Hormones, Th1/Th2-patterns, Pro/Anti- Inflammatory

Cytokines and Susceptibility to Disease. Trends Endo Metab., 10:359-368

  1. *Vottero, A., Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Glucocorticoid Receptor Beta: View I. Trends Endo Metab., 10:333-

338

  1. Elenkov, I. J., Webster, E. L., Torpy, D. J., Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Stress, Corticotropin-Releasing

Hormone, Glucocorticoids, and the Immune/Inflammatory Response: Acute and Chronic Effects. Annals

NY Academy of Sciences, 876:1-13.

  1. Chrousos, G.P., Elenkov, I. (2001) Interactions of the Endocrine and Immune Systems, in DeGroot L.,

Jameson L. (eds.) Endocrinology 4th Edition, W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Vol 1, p.571-586.

  1. *Bornstein, S. R., Bottner, A., Chrousos, G.P., (1999) Editorial, Knocking Out the Stress Response. Mol

Psychiatry 4 (5) :403-407.

72

  1. Elenkov, I., Wilder, R., Chrousos, G.P., Visi, E. S., (2000) The Sympathetic Nervous System – an

Integrative Interface Between Two “Supersystems”: The Brain and the Immune System, Pharmacol.

Rev., 52: 595-638

  1. *Lafferty, A. R., Chrousos, G.P., (1999) Pituitary Tumors in Children and Adolescents, J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab., 84:4317-4323.

  1. *Chrousos, G.P., (1999) Editorial, A New “New” Syndrome in the New World: Is Multiple Postreceptor

Steroid Hormone Resistance Due to a Coregulator Defect?, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84:4450-4453.

  1. Kalantaridou S.N., Chrousos G.P. (2000) Molecular Defects Causing Ovarian Dysfunction, Ann. N.Y.

Acad. of Sci. Vol. 900, 40-45.

  1. Funasaka, Y., Sato, H., Chakraborty, A. K., Ohashi, A., Chrousos, G.P., Ichihashi, M., (1999)

Expression Proopiomelanocortin, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH), and CRH Receptor in

Melanoma Cells, Nevus Cells, and Normal Human Melanocytes, J. Investigative Dermatology 4:105-109

  1. Meyer S.E., Chrousos G. P., Gold P.W. (2001) Major Depression and the Stress System, Development

and Psychopathology 13:565-580

  1. *Koch, C. A., Doppman, J. L., Patronas, N. J., Nieman, L. K., Chrousos, G.P. (2000) Do Glucocorticoids

Cause Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis? – When Endocrinology and Spinal Surgery Meet. Endo. Rev.,

11:86- 90.

  1. Chrousos G.P., (2000) Dehydroepiandrosterone and its Sulfate, Electronic Up-Date in Endocrinology,

Endocrine Society, US.

  1. Negrao, A.B., Deuster, P.A., Gold, P.W., Singh, A., Chrousos, G.P. (2000) Individual Reactivity and

Physiology of the Stress Response. Biomed & Pharmacother 54:122-128.263.

  1. Chrousos G. P., (2000) The Stress Response and Immune Function: Clinical Implications, The 1999

Novera H. Spector Lecture. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 917:38-67.

  1. Vottero A., Chrousos G.P., (1999) Glucocorticoid Receptor Isoforms Alpha and Beta: Potential

Physiological and Pathological Importance, The J. of Endocrine Genetics 1: 61-71.

  1. Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P., (1999) Adrenal Cancer, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North

America, 29:15-25.

  1. Elenkov, I.J. and Chrousos, G.P. (1999) Stress, cytokine patterns and susceptibility to disease. Stress and

Immunity: the Neuroendocrine Link, Baillière’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 13(4): 583-595.

  1. Willenberg H.S., Bornstein S.R., Chrousos G.P., (2000) Disease, Stress-Induced, Overview,

Encyclopedia of Stress, Vol. 1, Academic Press, San Diego, 1:709-713.

  1. Willenberg H.S., Bornstein S.R., Chrousos G.P., (2000) Adrenal Insufficiency, Encyclopedia of Stress,

Academic Press, San Diego, 1:58-63.

  1. Bornstein S.R., Stratakis C.A., Chrousos G.P. (2000) Cushing’s Syndrome, Medical Aspects,

Encyclopedia of Stress, Vol. 1, Academic Press San Diego, 1: 615-621.

  1. Koch C.A., Bornstein S.R., Chrousos G.P., Stratakis C.A. (2000) Primare pigmentierte nodulare

adrenokortikale Dysplasie (PPNAD) in Rahmen des Carney-Komplexes als Ursache eines Cushing-

Syndroms. Medizinische Klinik, 95:224-230.

  1. Creatsas G., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G. P. (2000) Introduction: Setting Reproductive Health Priorities

to Meet the Needs of the New Millennium. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 900:viii-xv.

  1. Vgontzas A.N., Papanicolaou D.A., Chrousos G. P. (2000) Chronic Systemic Inflammation in

Overweight and Obese Adults. (Letter to the editor) JAMA 283(17):2235-2236.

73

  1. Chrousos G.P. and Margioris A.N.. (2000) Adrenocorticosteroids and Adrenocortical Antagonists. Ed. B.

Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Lange, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York. 39:660-678.

  1. Chrousos G.P., Zoumakis E., Gravanis A. (2000) The Gonadal Hormones and Inhibitors. Ed. B. Katzung,

Lange, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York. 40:679-710.

  1. Pacak, K., Chrousos, G.P., Koch, C.A., Lenders, J.W.M., Eisenhofer, G (2001). “Pheochromocytoma:

Progress in Diagnosis, Therapy, and Genetics” in Margioris, A.N. and Chrousos, G.P. (Eds.) Adrenal

Disorders, Humana Press: New Jersey, p. 379-414

  1. *Leung, D.Y.M., Chrousos, G.P. (2000) Is there a role for glucocorticoid receptor-beta in glucocorticoiddependent

asthmatics? (Editorial) Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:1-3.

  1. Bornstein, S.R., Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Chapter 229.The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Stress

and Critical Illness. Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism, K. Becker (Ed.) 3rd

Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Philadelphia, Pa p. 2087-2094

  1. Kino, T., Vottero, A., Chrousos, G.P. (2001) “Mineralocorticoid and Glucocorticoid Receptors” in

Burris, T.P. and McCabe, E.R.B. (Eds.) Nuclear Receptors and Genetic Disease, Academic Press: San

Diego, p. 297-307.

  1. *Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Adrenal Suppression and Clinical Glucocorticoid Deficiency in the Premature

Infant: No Simple Answers (Clinical Perspective). J Clin Endocrinol Metab.86: 473-474

  1. Miller, W., and Chrousos, G.P.(2001) Chapter 11: The Adrenal Cortex. Endocrinology and Metabolism,

Felig P., and Frohman L. Eds., 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. p387-524

  1. Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Chapter 14: Glucocorticoid Therapy. Endocrinology and Metabolism, Felig P.

and Frohman L., Eds. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p 609-632

  1. Chrousos G. P. (2000) Stress, Chronic Inflammation, and Emotional and Physical Well-being:

Concurrent Effects and Chronic Sequelae. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol., 106: S275-S291.

  1. Elenkov, I.J., Chrousos, G.P., Wilder, R.L. (2000) Neuroendocrine Regulation of IL-12 and TNF-(/IL-10

Balance. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sciences, 917:94-105.

  1. Koch, C.A., Huang, S.C., Vortmeyer, A.O., Zhuang Z., Chrousos, G.P., Pacak, K. (2000) A patient with

MEN 2 and multiple mutations of RET in the germline (Letter to the editor). Experimental and Clinical

Endocrinology and Diabetes, 108:493.

  1. Torpy, D., Stratakis, C.A., Chrousos, G.P. (2000) Familial Hyperaldosteronism. Braz. J. Med. Biol.

Res., 33:1149-1155.

  1. Chikanza, I.C., Petrou, P., Chrousos, G.P. (2000) Perturbations of Arginine Vasopressin Secretion during

Inflammatory Stress. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 917:825-834.

  1. *Merke, D.P., Bornstein S. R., Avila N. and Chrousos G.P. (2002) Future Directions in the Study and

Management of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. Ann. Internal Med.

136:320-334

  1. Cizza G., Ayala A., Daley M., Gold P.W., Chrousos G.P. (2001) Depression and Osteoporosis:

Association or Causal Relationship? In: Physical Consequences of Depression, Ed. J. H. Thakore,

Wrightson Biomedical Publishing LTD, Philadelphia, Penn 107-24.

  1. *Kino T., Chrousos G.P. (2001) Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Resistance/Hypersensitivity

Syndromes. J. Endocrinol. 169:437-445

  1. Chrousos G. P., Kino T. (2002) Corticosteroid (Glucocorticoid) Receptor. Encyclopedia of Molecular

Medicine, T. Creighton, Editor, John Wiley and Son, New York, N.Y. 916-919

74

  1. Vottero A. and Chrousos G.P. (2004) Glucocorticoid Resistance and States. In Encyclopedia of

Endocrine Diseases. Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 235-

241

  1. *Meyer S.E., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W. (2001) Major Depression and the Stress System: A Lifespan

Perspective. Development and Psychopathology 13: 563-578

  1. *Cizza, G., Ravn, P., Chrousos, G.P., Gold, P.W. (2001) Depression: a major, unrecognized risk factor

for osteoporosis? Trends Endocrinol Metab. 12(5): 198-203.

  1. *Mitsiades, N., Poulaki, V., Mitsiades, C.S., Koutras, D.A., Chrousos, G.P. (2001) Apoptosis induced by

FASL and TRAIL/APO2L in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease. Trends in Endocrinol. Metabolism

12:384-390

  1. Bornstein S. and Chrousos, G.P., (Guest Eds. ). (2001) Adrenals. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic

Disorders 3; Issue 3.

  1. Magiakou M.A., and Chrousos G.P. (2002) Cushing Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Current

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 25: 181-194

  1. McGriff N.,J., Csako G., Kabbani M., Diep L., Chrousos G.P. , Pucino F. (2001) Treatment Options for a

Patient Experiencing Pruritic Rush Associated with Transdermal Testosterone. A Review of the

Literature. Pharmacotherapy 21:1425-35

  1. Joint LWPES/ESPE CAH Working Group. Consensus Statement on 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 87: 4048-4053

  1. Chrousos G. P., Ghizzoni L. and New M.I. (Guest Eds.) (2001) Endocrine Diseases: From Childhood to

Adulthood. Special Issue: J. Endocrinol. Invest. 24 Issue 9

  1. Habib K., Gold P. W., and Chrousos G.P. (2001) Neuroendocrinology of Stress. Endocrinol. Metab.

Clin. NA 30: 695-728

  1. *Kino T., and Chrousos G. P. (2001) Editorial. AIDS-related Insulin Resistance and Lipodystrophy: A

Multifactorial Viral and Iatrogenic Condition. Endocrine Practice. 7: 479-484

  1. *Koch C., and Chrousos G. P. (2001) Editorial. Is the Diminuto/Dwarf1 Gene Involved in Physiologic

Adrenocortical Size Regulation and Tumor Formation? J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86: 5127-9

  1. Carter C. S., Altemus M., Chrousos G.P. (2001) Neuroendocrine and Emotional Changes in the Postpartum

Period. Progr. Brain Res. 133: 241-249

  1. Chrousos G.P., Lafferty A., (2001) Glucocorticoid Therapy and Cushing Syndrome. eMedicine Journal

2(9)

  1. Chrousos G.P., Lafferty A., (2001) Nelson Syndrome. eMedicine Journal 2(9)
  2. Chrousos G.P., Lafferty A., (2001) Hyperaldosteronism. eMedicine Journal 2(9)
  3. Radebold K., Koch C. A., Chrousos G.P., (2001) Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias. eMedicine Journal

2(9)

  1. Koch CA, Pacak K, Chrousos GP. (2002) Chapter 37. Endocrine Tumors. In: Pizzo PA, Poplack DG

(eds): Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology; 4th edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;

Philadelphia, PA;p 1115-1148

  1. Koch CA, Chrousos GP. (2003) Diagnosis and Management of Cushing’s Disease. In: Powell M,

Lightman SL, Laws ER (eds.): Management of Pituitary Tumors: The Clinician’s Practical Guide.

Humana Press, Totowa, NJ; p 51-76

  1. Koch CA, Huang SC, Vortmeyer AO, Chrousos GP, Pacak K, Zhuang Z. (2001) Do somatic RET

75

mutations represent a phenomenon of tumor progression ? Curr Opin Clin Exp Res 3(3):140-145

  1. *Gold PW, Chrousos GP (2002) Organization of the Stress System and Its Dysregulation in Melancholic

and Atypical Depression: High vs. Low CRH/NE States. Mol. Psychiatry 7: 254-275

  1. *Kino T. and Chousos GP, (2002) Editorial. Tissue-specific Glucocorticoid Resistance/Hypersensitivity

Syndromes: Multifactorial States of Clinical Importance. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 109: 609-613

  1. *Koch C. A, Chrousos GP, Chandra R, Evangelista R S, Gilbert JC, Nobuhara K, Zhuang Z, Vortmeyer

AO (2002) Two-hit Model for Tumorigenesis of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma (Gorlin) Syndromeassociated

Hepatic Mesenchymal Tumor. Am. J. Med Genetics 109: 74-76

  1. Vgontzas AN, Vela-Bueno A, Chrousos GP (2002) Chapter 50. Endocrine Disorders and Sleep. In:

Sleep Medicine, Lee-Chiong TL, Sateia MJ, Carscadon MA (Eds.) Hanley and Belfus, Inc. Philadelphia

p 477-487

  1. Habib K, Gold PW, Chrousos G (2002) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis: Introduction to Physiology

and Pathophysiology. Hormones, Brain and Behavior. 4: 841-866

  1. *Vgontzas A., Chrousos GP (2002) Editorial. Sleep Disordered Breathing, Sleepiness, and Insulin

Resistance: Is the Latter a Consequence, a Pathogenetic Factor or Both? Sleep Medicine 3: 389-391

  1. * Kalantaridou S, Chrousos GP (2002) Clinical Review 148. Monogenic Disorders of Puberty. J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. 87: 2481-2494

  1. Chrousos GP (2002) Chapter 264. Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.In: L. Finberg and R

Kleinman, Eds. Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice 2nd Edition, WB Saunders Co.Philadelphia p909-

911

  1. Chrousos GP and Linder B (2002) Chapter 278. Steroid Withdrawal. In: L. Finberg and R Kleinman,

Eds. Saunders Manual of Pediatric Practice 2nd Edition, WB Saunders Co. Philadelphia p950-952

  1. *Tsigos C and Chrousos GP (2002) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis, Neuroendocrine Factors and

Stress. Psychosomatic Research 53: 865-871

  1. Gold PW, Gabry KE, Yasuda MR, Chrousos GP (2002) Divergent Endocrine Abnormalities in

Melancholic and Atypical Depression: Clinical and Pathophysiologic Implications. Endocrinol. Metab.

Clin. North America 31:37-62

  1. Vgontzas AN, Chrousos GP (2002) Sleep, the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis, and Cytokines:

Multiple Interactions and Disturbances in Sleep Disorders. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North America 31:

15-36

  1. Koska J, Ksinantova L, Sebokova E, Kvetnansky R, Klimes I, Chrousos G, Pacak K (2002) Endocrine

Regulation of Subcutaneous Fat Metabolism during Cold Exposure in Humans. Ann. NY Acad Sci 967:

500-505

  1. Chrousos G.P. (2002) Chapter 1. Organization and Integration of the Endocrine System. In: Pediatric

Endocrinology, Sperling M., ed., Saunders Co.: Philadelphia, 1-14.

  1. Elenkov IJ, Chrousos GP (2002) Stress Hormones, Proinflammatory and Antiinflammatory Cytokines

and Autoimmunity. Ann. N Y Acad Sci 966: 290-303.

  1. *Grammatopoulos D., Chrousos GP (2002) Structural and Signalling Diversity of Corticotropin-releasing

Hormone (CRH) and Related Peptides and Their Receptors: Potential Clinical Applications of CRH

Receptor Antagonists. Trends in Endocrinol. Metab. 13: 436-444

  1. Kino T., Vottero A., Charmandari E., and Chrousos GP (2002) Familial/Sporadic Glucocorticoid

Resistance Syndrome and Hypertension. Ann. NY Acad Sci. 970: 101-111

  1. Alesci S., Chrousos GP, Pacak K. (2002) Genomic Medicine: Exploring the Basis of a New Approach to

76

Endocrine Hypertension. Ann. NY Acad. Sci 970: 177-192

  1. Working Group, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and European Society for Pediatric

Endocrinology (2002) Consensus Statement on Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. 87: 4042-4047

  1. Vottero A and Chrousos GP (2002) Glucocorticoid Resistance and Hypersensitivity Syndromes. Oxford

Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Eds. J. Wass and S. Shalet Oxford University Press, Oxford,

  1. 845-851
  2. Chrousos GP (2002) The Neuroendocrinology of Stress. Clinical Endocrinology (Japan) 51:13-14
  3. *Franchimont D, Kino T, Galon J, Meduri GU, Chrousos GP (2003) Glucocorticoids and Inflammation

Revisited. NIH Clinical Staff Conference. NeuroImmunoModulation 10:247-260

  1. *Koch C, Pacak K, Chrousos GP (2002) The Molecular Pathogenesis of Hereditary and Sporadic

Adrenocortical and Adrenomedullary Tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 87: 5367-5384

  1. Vgontzas A, Chrousos GP (2003) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis and Sleep. Chapter 31.

www.Endotext.com

  1. *Charmandari E, Kino T, Souvatzoglou E and Chrousos GP (2003) Pediatric Stress: Hormonal

Mediators and Human Development. Hormone Res., 59: 161-179

  1. *Gerrity TR, Bates J, Bell DS, Chrousos G, Furst G, Hedrick T, Hurwitz B, Kula RW, Levine SM,

Moore RC, Schondorf R (2002) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: What Role Does the Autonomic System

Play in the Pathophysiology of this Complex Illness? NeuroImmunoModulation 10:134-141

  1. Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Kalandaridou S, Mitsiadis N, Margioris N, Chrousos G and Gravanis A

(2002) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH) and Immunotolerance of the Fetus. Bioch. Pharmacol.

7507: 917-921

  1. Chrousos GP (2002) New Editor-in-Chief’s Note. NeuroImmunoModulation 10: 129-131
  2. Kino T. and Chrousos GP (2002) The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Axis in AIDS. www.endotext.com
  3. *Masi A and Chrousos GP (2003) Editorial: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Rheumatoid Arthritis:

Possible Clues to Hormonal Influences on Chronic Inflammation. Sem Arthritis and Rheumatism 33:67-

71

  1. Magiakou MA and Chrousos GP (2002) Glucocorticoid Therapy and Adrenal Suppression.

www.endotext.com

  1. Latronico AC and Chrousos GP (2002) Adrenal Cancer. Diagnosis and Treatment. www.endotext.com
  2. Arai K, Shibasaki T, Chrousos GP (2002) Aldosterone Deficiency and Resistance. www.endotext.com
  3. *Kino T, Mirani M, Alesci S, Chrousos GP (2003) AIDS-related Lipodystrophy/Insulin Resistance

Syndrome. Horm. Metab. Res. 35: 129-136

  1. *Wolak M, Chrousos GP and Gold PW (2003) Stress System: Emphasis on Corticotropin-releasing

Factor in Physiologic Stress Responses and the Endocrinopathies of Melancholic and Atypical

Depression. Endocrine Rev., in Press

  1. Vottero A, Chrousos GP (2003) Glucocorticoid Resistance Syndromes and States. Chapter 16.

www.Endotext.com

  1. Kino T and Chrousos GP (2003) AIDS-related Insulin Resistance and Lipodystrophy Syndrome. Current

Drug Targets- Immune, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 3: 111-117

  1. *Hochberg Z., Pacak K., Chrousos GP (2003) Endocrine Withdrawal Syndromes. Endocrine Rev. 24:

77

523-548

  1. Koch C, Chrousos GP (2003) Chapter 4. Cushing Disease, In: Management of Pituitary Tumors: The

Clinician’s Practical Guide. Eds M P Powell, SL Lightman and Laws ER Humana Press, Totowa NJ, 51-

75

  1. Charmandari E, and Chrousos GP (2003) Adrenal Insufficiency. www.endotext.com
  2. Gourgiotis L and Chrousos GP (2003) Pseudo-Cushing States. www.endotext.com
  3. Charmandari E, Kino T and Chrousos GP (2003) Glucocorticoids. Neonatal and Pediatric Pharmacology.

Second Edition. Ed. S. Yaffe. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Penn. p 713 (14)

  1. Pedrone E, Goldman R, Calis K, Chrousos GP, Cizza G (2003) Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis.

www.endotext.com

  1. Vgontzas A. Bixler EO, Chrousos GP (2003) Metabolic Disturbances in Obesity vs. Sleep Apnea: The

Importance of Visceral Obesity and Insulin Resistance. J Intern Med. 254: 32-4

  1. Arnaldi G, Angeli A, Atkinson A, Bertagna X, Cavagnini F, G. Chrousos, G. Fava A, Findling J,

Gaillard RC, Grossman AB, Kola A, Lacroix A, Mancini T, Mantero F, Newell-Price J,. Nieman LK,

Sonino N,. Vance ML, Giustina A and M. Boscaro (2003) Diagnosis And Complications of Cushing’s

Syndrome: A Consensus Statement Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 88: 5593-602

  1. Charmandari E. Kino T. and Chrousos GP (2004) Glucocorticoid Resistance Syndrome. eMedicine.com
  2. Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Kalantaridou S, Chrousos G, Gravanis A (2003) Uterine and Embryonic

Trophoblast CRH Promotes Implantation and Maintenance of Early Pregnancy. Ann NY Acad Sci. 997:

85-92

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Makrigiannakis A, Mastorakos G, Chrousos GP (2003) Roles of Reproductive

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone. Ann NY Acad Sci, 997: 129-135

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E and Chrousos GP (2004) Reproductive Functions of

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone (CRH). Research and Potential Clinical Utility of Antalarmins (CRH

Receptor Type 1 Antagonists) J. Reprod Immunol 51(4): 269-74.

  1. Chrousos G.P. (2004) Chapter 39. Adrenocorticosteroids and Adrenocortical Antagonists. Ed. B.

Katzung, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Lange, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York. 641-660

  1. Chrousos G.P., (2004) Chapter 40. The Gonadal Hormones and Inhibitors. Ed. B. Katzung, Lange,

McGraw-Hill, New York, New York 661-692

  1. Kino T., Charmandari E. and Chrousos GP (2003) Glucocorticoid Receptor. www.Endotext .com
  2. Kino T., De Martino MU, Charmandari E., Mirani M, and Chrousos GP (2003) Tissue Glucocorticoid

Resistance/ Hypersensitivity Syndromes. J Ster Biochem Mol Biol 85:457-467.

  1. Kino T, Charmandari E, and Chrousos GP (2003) Basic and Clinical Implications of Glucocorticoid

Actions. Proceedings of a Conference Dedicated to Professor Yukitaka Miyachi. Horm and Metabol

Res.,35: 628-638 pr

  1. Kino T, and Chrousos GP (2004) Chapter 14. Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptors and

Associated Diseases. Essays in Biochemistry, Vol 40 : The Nuclear Receptor Superfamily. 40:137-55.

  1. Baker DG, Geracioti TD, Kasckow JW, Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP (2003) Chapter 14. Cytokines and

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. In: Cytokines and Mental Health, Ed. Z. Kronfol, Kluwer Academic

Publishers, Boston.301-338.

  1. Charmandari E., Kino T., Chrousos G.P. Glucocorticoid Receptor.In Encyclopedia of Endocrine

Diseases. Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press 2004, San Diego, CA, USA

78

  1. Charmandari E., Chrousos G.P. Glucocorticoids, Overview. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases.

Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press 2004, San Diego, CA, USA

  1. Charmandari E., Chrousos G.P. Adrenal Insufficiency. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases. Luciano

Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 75-80

  1. Chrousos G.P. Stress and Endocrine Physiology. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases. Luciano

Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA

  1. Ayala A and Chrousos GP. (2004) Hypercortisolism and Cushing Syndrome. In Encyclopedia of

Endocrine Diseases. Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 540-

548

  1. Grimaldi L and Chrousos GP Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders. In Nichols D, Yaster M, Lappe DG,

Haller JA and Paidas C (eds.) Golden Hour: The Handbook of Advanced Pediatric Life Support. Mosby

Pub. Philadelphia (in press).

  1. Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Mastorakos G and Chrousos GP (2003) Endocrine –related Causes and

Consequences of Intrauterine Growth Retardation. Ann NY Acad Sci 997: 150-157

  1. Chrousos G, Charmandari E, and Kino T (2004) Editorial. Networks of Glucocorticoid Actions: An

Introduction to Systems Biology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89: 563-564

  1. Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Kalantaridou S, Chrousos G, Gravanis A (2004) Participation of

Maternal and Fetal CRH in Early Phases of Human Implantation: The Role of Antalarmin. Curr Drug

Targets- Imm Endo and Metab Dis 4:75-78

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T and Chrousos GP (2004) Familial/Sporadic Glucocorticoid Resistance. Orphanet

Encyclopedia www.orpha.net

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T and Chrousos GP (2004) Glucocorticoid Actions. Orphanet Encyclopedia

www.orpha.net

  1. Contoreggi C, Rice KC, Chrousos GP (2004) Non-peptide Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Receptor

Type 1 Antagonists and their Applications in Psychosomatic Disorders. Neuroendocrinology 80:111-123

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP (2004) Reproductive Functions of

Corticotropin-releasing Hormone. Research and Potential Clinical Utility of Antalarmins (CRH Receptor

Type 1 Antagonists) Am J Reprod Immunol 51: 269-274

  1. Chrousos G (2004) Editorial. The Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene, Longevity, and the Highly Prevalent

Complex Disorders of Western Societies. Am J Medicine 117: 204-207

  1. Chrousos GP (2004) Editorial. Is 11-beta- Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 a Good Therapeutic

Target for Blockade of Glucocorticoid Actions? Proc Ntl Acad Sci USA, 101: 6329-30

  1. Magiakou MA, Chrousos G.P. Adrenal Suppression. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases. Luciano

Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 81-89

  1. Koch C, Chrousos G.P. Adrenal Tumors: Molecular Pathogenesis. In: Encyclopedia of Endocrine

Diseases. Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 90-98

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Chrousos G.P. Glucocorticoid Receptor. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine

Diseases. Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 229-234

  1. Charmandari E, Chrousos G.P. Glucocorticoids, Overview. In Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases.

Luciano Martini (ed), Elsevier, Academic Press, 2004, San Diego, CA, USA 253-259

  1. Alesci S, Su YA, Chrousos GP (2004) hMiDas and hMitChip (2004) New Opportunities in

Mitochondrial Bioinformatics and Genomic Medicine. Eds. Long R., Antani S., Lee DJ, Nutter B, Zhang

79

  1. Proc 17 IEEE Computer-based Medical Systems, Los Alamitos, Ca p329-334
  2. Tsigos C, Kyrou I and Chrousos GP (2004) Stress, Endocrine Physiology and Pathophysiology.

www.Endotext.com

  1. Chrousos GP (2004) Book Review. Male Hypogonadism, by Winters SG, Ed Totowa, NJ: Humana

Press. Annals of Intern Medicine 140: 1064

  1. Chrousos GP (2004) Book Review. Microcompetition with Foreign DNA and the Origin of Chronic

Disease, by Polansky H, Ed. Center for Biology of Chronic Disease, Rochester.

Neuroimmunomodulation 11: 278

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T., Chrousos G. (2004) Glucocorticoids and their actions: an introduction. Ann N

Y Acad Sci. 1024:1-8.

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T., Chrousos G. (2004) Familial/sporadic glucocorticoid resistance: clinical

phenotype and molecular mechanisms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1024:168-81.

  1. Kino T, Chrousos G. (2004) Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative

agent of the AIDS-related insulin resistance/lipodystrophy syndrome? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1024:153-67.

  1. DeMartino MU, Alesci S, Chrousos GP (2004) Interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor and the chicken

ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII): implications for the actions of

glucocorticoids on glucose, lipoprotein, and xenobiotic metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1024:72-85.

  1. Kino T and Chrousos GP (2004) Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and associated

diseases. Essays Biochem. 40:137-155.

  1. *Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Lin H-M, Prolo P, Trakada G, Chrousos G (2005) Interleukin-6 and Its

Circadian Secretion in Humans. Neuroimmunomodulation 2005;12(3):131-140

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP. (2004) Stress and the female

reproductive system. J Reprod Immunol. 62:61-8.

  1. Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Kalantaridou S, Chrousos G. (2004) Endometrial and placental CRH as

regulators of human embryo implantation. J Reprod Immunol. 62:53-9.

  1. *Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Fryssira H, Chrousos G, Mastorakos G (2004) Growth hormone deficiency in a

case of cerebrofaciothoracic syndrome in one of two affected siblings. Am J Med Genet;129A:330.

  1. Costello RB and Chrousos GP (2005) Other Bioactive Food Components and Dietary Supplements.

Report to the Institute of Medicine, Natl Acad Sci US, pp 462.

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004) Chapter 49. Glucocorticoids,.In: Neonatal and Pediatric

Pharmacology: Therapeutic Principles in Practice. Eds. Yaffe S and Aranda J. Lippincott, Williams and

Wilkins Co,Philadelphia Pa 713-726

  1. Weiss LM, Bertagna X, Chrousos GP et al. (2004) Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma, In: Tumors of

Endocrine Origin, Pathology and Genetics, WHO Organization and Classification of Tumors, Eds.

DeLellis, Lloyd RV and Heitz PU and Eng C IARC Press, Lyon 139-142

  1. Sasano H, Young WF, Jr,, Chrousos GP et al. (2004) Adrenal Cortical Adenoma , In: Tumors of

Endocrine Origin, Pathology and Genetics, WHO Organization and Classification of Tumors, Eds.

DeLellis, Lloyd RV and Heitz PU and Eng C IARC Press, Lyon 143-146

  1. *Linos D, Kiriakopoulos AC, Tsakayannis DE, Theodoridou M, Chrousos G .(2004) Laparoscopic

excision of bilateral primary adrenal leiomyosarcomas in a 14-year-old girl with acquired

immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Surgery 136(5):1098-100.

  1. Tsigos C., Kyrou I, Chrousos G.P. (2005) Stress, Endocrine Manifestations and Diseases. Chapter 6. In:

Handbook of Stress Medicine and Health. Second Edition, Cooper C.L., ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

80

Inc., 109-129.

  1. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO and Chrousos GP (2005) Sleep Apnea Is A Manifestation of the Metabolic

Syndrome. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 9(3):211-24.

  1. *Charmandari E, Chrousos GP, Merke D (2005) Adrenocorticotropin Hypersecretion and Pituitary

Microadenoma Following Bilateral Adrenalectomy in a Patient with Classic 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.

J Pediatr. Endocrinol. 18(1):97-101.

  1. *Charmandari E, Tsigos C, Chrousos GP (2005) Neuroendocrinology of Stress. Ann Rev Physiol. Vol.

67: 259-284

  1. *Chrousos G, Kino T (2005) Ikaros Trancription Factors: Flying between Stress and Inflammation. J

Clin Invest. 115:844-848

  1. *Alesci S, De Martino MU, Ilias I, Gold PW, Chrousos GP. (2005) Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis:

from basic mechanisms to clinical aspects. Neuroimmunomodulation 12(1):1-19.

  1. Ayala A, Chrousos G (2005) Cushing’s Syndrome. In: Adrenal Glands: Diagnostic Aspects and Surgical

Therapy. Eds. D. Linos and J. van Heerden. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, New York p57-66

  1. Charmandari E, Chrousos G and Merke D(2005) Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. In: Adrenal

Glands: Diagnostic Aspects and Surgical Therapy. Eds. D. Linos and J. van Heerden. Springer-Verlag,

Berlin, New York p101-114

  1. Chrousos GP and Makrigiannakis A (2005) Guest Editors. 39th Annual Meeting of the European Society

of Clinical Investigation. Eur J Clin Invest 35 (Suppl 2): 1-94

  1. Kino T and Chrousos G (2005) Glucocorticoid Effects on Gene Expression. In: Handbook on Stress and

the Brain. Vol 15. Eds. Stechler T, Kalin NH and Reul JMHM. p 295- 311

  1. Vgontzas AN, Pejovic S and Chrousos GP (2005) Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders and Sleep.

Encyclopedia of Sleep Medicine, Ed. Teofilo Lee-Chiong. John Wiley&Sons, Inc.

  1. Siragy HM, Chrousos GP and Shupnik MA (2005) Chapter 33. Glucocorticoids and

Mineralocorticoids.In: Brody’s Clinical Pharmacology. Molecular to Clinical. 4th Edition. Eds: KP

Minneman, L Wecker. Elsevier-Mosby p 409-421

  1. *Chrousos GP and Kino T (2005) Interactive Functional Specificity of the Stress and Immune

Responses: The Ying, the Yang and the Defense Against Two Major Classes of Bacteria. J Infectious

Dis. 192: 551-555

  1. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Sleep apnea is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Sleep

Med Rev. 2005 Jun; 9(3):211-24.

  1. Magiakou MA, and Chrousos GP (2005) Chapter 4.Biological Basis of Stress-related Diseases. In:

Research Companion to Organizational Health Psychology. Eds. AS Antoniou and CL Cooper. EE

Publishing, Cheltenham UK p70-86

  1. *Papadimitriou A, and Chrousos GP (2005) Reconsidering the Sex Diffrences in the Incidence of

Pubertal Disorders. Horm Metab Res 37:708-710

  1. Chrousos GP and Kino T (2005) Glucocorticoid Action Networks and Systemic Complex Diseases. In:

Hormones, Age and Cancer. Berstein L (ed) Nauka Publ Co. St. Petersburg p.226-236

  1. Stratakis C and Chrousos GP (2005) Hypothalamic Hormones, In: Endocrinology: Basic and Clinical

Principles, Second Edition, Eds. S Melmed and PM Conn. Humana Press, Totowa NJ , p.173-195

  1. *Meduri GU and Chrousos GP (2006) Effectiveness of Prolonged Glucocorticoid Treatment in ARDS:

The Right Drug the Right Way? Crit Care Med. 34(1):236-238

81

  1. *Chrousos GP and Kino T (2005) Intracellular Glucocorticoid Signaling: A Formerly Simple System

Turns Stochastic. Perspective, Science: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment (STKE). 304:

pe48

  1. *Elenkov IJ, Iezzoni DG, Daly A, Harris AG, Chrousos GP (2005) Cytokine Dysregulation,

Inflammation and Well-being. Neuroimmunomodulation 12:255-269

  1. *Chrousos G P, Kaltsas G (2005) How Accurate Are Currently Used Methods of Determining Glycemia

in Critically Ill Patients and Do They Affect Their Clinical Course? Crit Care Med. 33:2849-51

  1. *Chrousos GP, Kaltsas G. (2005) Post-SARS Sickness Syndrome Manifestations and Endocrinopathy:

how, why, and so what? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 63(4):363-5.

  1. *Macrigiannakis A, Kalantaridou S, Minas V, Nikas G, Chrousos GP (2006) Hormonal and Cytokine

Regulation of Early Implantation. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 17(3):101-9

  1. *Kalantaridou SN, Naka KK, Bechlioulis A, Makrigiannakis A, Michalis L and Chrousos GP (2006)

Premature Ovarian Failure, Endothelial Dysfunction and Estrogen/Progestogen Replacement. Trends

Endocrinol Metab. 17(5):178-85.

  1. *Kalantaridou SN, Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E and Chrousos GP (2007) Peripheral Corticotropinreleasing

Hormone Is Produced in the Immune and Reproductive Systems: Actions, Potential Roles and

Clinical Implications. Front Bioscience 12:572-80

  1. *Pervanidou P, Kanaka-Gantenbein C and Chrousos GP (2006) Assessment of Metabolic Profile in a

Clinical Setting. Curr Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 9(5):589-595

  1. Zoumakis E, Grammatopoulos D and Chrousos G (2006) Corticotropin-releasing Hormone Antagonists.

Eur J Endocrinol 155 (Suppl1) S85-S90

  1. Chrousos GP and Kaltsas GA (2006) Chapter 16. The Stress System and the Hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal

Axis in Rheumatoid Arthritis. In: Rheumatoid Arthritis, 2nd edition, Firestein GS, Panayi GS, and

Wollstein FA. Oxford University Press p221-228

  1. Magiakou MA, Smyrnaki P, Chrousos GP. (2006) Hypertension in Cushing’s syndrome. Best Pract Res

Clin Endocrinol Metab. 20:467-82

  1. Kino T, Chrousos GP (2005) Steroid Hormone Receptor Defects, Molecular Basis.Encyclopedic

Reference of Genomics and Proteomics. Springer-Verlag p 1802-1807 On line www.springerlink.com

  1. *Giannoulia-Karantana A, Vlachou A, Polychronopoulou S, Papassotiriou I, Chrousos GP. (2006)

Melatonin and Immunomodulation: Connections and Potential Clinical Applications:

Neuroimmunomodulation. Nov 21; 13(3):63-74

  1. Charmandari E and Chrousos GP (2006) Metabolic Syndrome Manifestations in Classic Congenital

Adrenal Hyperplasia: Do they Predispose to Cardiovascular Atherosclerotic Disease and Secondary

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome? Ann NYAcad Sci 1083: 37-53

  1. *Kalantaridou S, Makrigiannakis A, Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP. (2007) Peripheral Corticotropinreleasing

Hormone Is Produced in the Immune and Reproductive Systems: Actions, Potential roles and

Clinical Implications. Front Biosci. 12:572-80.

  1. *Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Fryssira H, Kakavakis K, Bouzas E, Thomaidis L, Chrousos G, Mastorakos G.

(2006) Two years of growth hormone treatment in the first growth hormone deficient patient with

cerebrofaciothoracic dysplasia. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 19:1179-83.

  1. *Chrousos GP (2007) Commentary: Is laparoscopic adrenalectomy good for all adrenal masses? Nature

Clinical Practice: Endocrinology and Metabolism 3: 210-211

  1. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. (2006) Obesity-related sleepiness and fatigue: the role of the

stress system and cytokines. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1083:329-44.

82

  1. Zoumakis E, Rice KC, Gold PW, Chrousos GP. (2006) Potential uses of corticotropin-releasing hormone

antagonists. Ann N Y Acad Sci.1083: 239-51.

  1. Kyrou I, Chrousos GP, Tsigos C. (2006) Stress, visceral obesity, and metabolic complications. Ann N Y

Acad Sci.1083: 77-110.

  1. *Kino T and Chrousos GP (2007) Virus-mediated Modulation of the Host Endocrine Signaling Systems:

Clinical Implications. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 18: 159-166

  1. Creatsas G, Mastorakos, Chrousos GP (2006) Foreword: Women’s Health: The World’s Safeguard. Ann

NY Acad Sci 1092: xiii–xv.

  1. Elenkov IJ, Chrousos GP. (2006) Stress system – organization, physiology and immunoregulation.

Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006; 13 (5-6):257-67. Epub 2007

  1. Kaltsas G and Chrousos GP (2007) The Neuroendocrinology of Stress. In: Handbook of

Psychophysiology Eds. Cacioppo J, Tassinary, and Berntson GG, Cambridge University Press,

Cambridge p 303-318

  1. *Manoli I, Alesci S, Blackman MR, Su YA, Rennert OM and Chrousos GP (2007) Mitochondria as

Critical Components of the Stress Response. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 18(5):190-8

  1. *Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Papandreou E, Stefanaki K, Fryssira H, Kolialexi A, Sophocleous C, Mavrou A,

Kitsiou-Tzeli S, Chrousos GP. (2007) Spontaneous Ovulation in a True Hermaphrodite with Normal

Male Phenotype and a Rare 46,XX/47,XXY Klinefelter’s Mosaic Karyotype. Horm Res 26; 68 (3):139-

144

  1. Willenberg HS, S. R. Bornstein and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Adrenal Insufficiency, In: Encyclopedia of

Stress, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 1, p 47-52

  1. Pervanidou P and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), In: Encyclopedia of Stress,

2nd Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol 1, p 357-360

  1. Chrousos GP and Kaltsas G. (2007) Cardiovascular Disease, Stress In: Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd

Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 1, p 410-416

  1. Bornstein SR, M. Gruber,H. S. Willenberg, C. A. Stratakis and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Cushing’s

Syndrome, Medical Aspects, In: Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford,

UK, and San Diego, Vol. 1, p 682-688

  1. Willenberg HS, S. R. Bornstein and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Disease, Stress Induced, In: Encyclopedia of

Stress, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 1, p 824-828

  1. Makrigiannakis A, G. Petsas and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia, In: Encyclopedia

of Stress, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 1, p 880-884

  1. Kalantaridou SN, T. Vrekoussis, A. Makrigiannakis and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Endometriosis, In:

Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego,Vol. 1, p

927-931

  1. Eleftheriades M, P. Pervanidou and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Fetal Stress, In: Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd

Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 2, p 46-51

  1. Alevizaki M and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Heart Failure, Stress Effects, In: Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd

Edition, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 2, p 272-274

  1. Manoli I, S. Alesci and Chrousos G. P. (2007) Mitochondria, In: Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd Edition,

Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, Vol. 2, p 754-761

  1. *Makras P, Alexandraki KI, Chrousos GP, Grossman AB, Kaltsas GA (2007) Endocrine Manifestations

83

in Langerhans’ Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Trends Endocrinol Metab 18(6):252-7.

  1. *Chrousos GP, Kino T (2007) Glucocorticoid action networks and complex psychiatric and/or somatic

disorders. Stress 10:213-219

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Zoumakis E, Makrigiannakis A, Godoy H, Chrousos GP. (2007) Role of Corticotropinreleasing

Hormone in Blastocyst Implantation and Early Fetal Immunotolerance. Horm Metab Res.

39:474-477.

  1. Pervanidou P, Chrousos GP. (2007) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents: From

Sigmund Freud’s “Trauma” to Psychopathology and the (Dys)metabolic Syndrome. Horm Metab Res.

39:413- 419

  1. *Meduri GU, Marik PE, Chrousos GP, Pastores SM, Arlt W, Beishuizen, Bokhari F, Zaloga G, Annane

D (2008) Steroid Treatment in ARDS: a Critical Appraisal of the ARDS Network Trial and the Recent

Literature. Crit Care Med. 34:61-69

  1. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Papavassiliou AG, Kandarakis SA, Chrousos GP. (2007) Pathophysiology and

types of dyslipidemia in PCOS. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug 8; 18(7):280-5

  1. Chrousos GP (2007) Organization and Integration of the Endocrine System. The Sleep and Wakefulness

Perspective. Sleep Medicine Clinics 2: 125-145

  1. Trakada G, Chrousos GP, Pejovic S, Vgontzas AN (2007) Sleep Apnea and its Association with the

Stress System, Inflammation, Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity. Sleep Med Clin 2: 251–261

  1. Basta M, Chrousos G, Vela-Bueno A, Vgontzas AN (2007) Chronic Insomnia and the Stress System.

Sleep Med Clin 2: 279–291

  1. Zoumakis E, Kalantaridou SN, Chrousos GP (2007) The “Brain-Skin Connection”: Nerve Growth

Factor-dependent Pathways for Stress-Induced Skin Disorders J Mol Med 85(12):1347-9

  1. Cutolo M, Straub R, Chrousos GP, Eds. (2006) Issue on Stress and Autoimmunity.

Neuroimmunomodulation 13: 253-382

  1. *Priftis KN, Papadimitriou A, Nicolaidou P, Chrousos GP (2007) The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

axis in asthmatic children. Trends Endocrinol Metab 19:32-38

  1. Stefanaki C, Chrousos GP, Katsambas A (2007) Glucocorticoid and sex hormone receptors: clinical

implications and therapeutic relevance. Dermatol Clin. 25(4): 503-13.

  1. Kalantaridou SN, Zoumakis E, Weil S, Lavasidis LG, Chrousos GP, Makrigiannakis A. (2007)

Reproductive corticotropin releasing hormone, implantation, and fetal immunotolerance. Crit Rev Clin

Lab Sci. 44: 461-81.

  1. *Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, Meduri GU, Arlt W, Sprung CL, Keh D, Briegel J, Beishuizen A,

Dimopoulou I, Tsagarakis T, Singer M, MD; Chrousos GP, Zaloga G, Bokhari F, Vogeser M (2007)

Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critical

illness: Recommendations of an international task forc. Critical Care Medicine (Epublication ahead of

print)

  1. *Charmandari E, Kino T, Ichijo T, Chrousos GP (2008) Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance: Clinical

Aspects, Molecular Mechanisms and Implications of a Rare Genetic Disorder. J. Clin Endocrinol. Metab.

93(5):1563-1572

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Chrousos GP (2008) Generalized Glucocorticoid Insensitivity: Clinical

Phenotype and Molecular Mechanisms. Chapter 5. In: Overcoming Steroid Insensitivity in Respiratory

Disease. Eds. Adcock AM and Chung KF. J. Wiley Publ. Chichester, England p73-85

84

  1. Franchimont DP, Chrousos GP (2008) Glucocorticoid Resistance in Inflammatory Diseases. In

Neuroimmune Biology Vol 7. The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Eds. del Rey A, Chrousos G

and Besedovsky, Elsevier Co., Oxford UK p349- 358`

  1. Zapanti E, Terzidis K, Chrousos G. (2008) Dysfunction of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis in

HIV infection and disease. Hormones (Athens) 3:205-216

  1. Priftis KN, Papadimitriou A, Nicolaidou P, Chrousos GP (2008) Testing for hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal

axis suppression in asthmatic children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 19:466-7; author reply 468-70.

  1. Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP, Pejovic S (2008) Obesity and sleep disturbances: Meaningful

sub-typing of obesity. Arch Physiol Biochem. 114(4): 224-36

  1. Priftis K N, Papadimitriou A, Nicolaidou P and GP Chrousos (2009) Dysregulation of the Stress

Response in Asthatic Children. Allergy 64: 18-31

  1. Chrousos GP, Kino T, Charmandari E (2008) Generalised Glucocorticoid Resistance. European

Endocrinology 4: 93-99

  1. *Chrousos GP (2009) Stress and Disorders of the Stress System. Nature Endocrinology Reviews 5(7):

374-8

  1. *Carel JC, Eugster EA, Rogol A, Ghizzoni L, Palmert MR; ESPE-LWPES GnRH Analogs Consensus

Conference Group, Antoniazzi F, Berenbaum S, Bourguignon JP, Chrousos GP, Coste J, Deal S, de

Vries L, Foster C, Heger S, Holland J, Jahnukainen K, Juul A, Kaplowitz P, Lahlou N, Lee MM, Lee P,

Merke DP, Neely EK, Oostdijk W, Phillip M, Rosenfield RL, Shulman D, Styne D, Tauber M, Wit JM.

(2009) Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children.

Pediatrics. 2009 Apr; 123(4):e752-62.

  1. Magiakou MA, Sarafoglou K, Stratakis C, and Chrousos GP (2008) Chapter 28. Cushing Syndrome in

Children and Adolescents. In Sarafoglou K, Hoffmann GF and Roth KS. (Eds) Pediatric Endocrinology

and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. McGraw Hill Co, New York p 411-418

  1. Gantenbein-Kanaka C and Chrousos GP (2008) Sudden Death in Adrenal Disease. Highlights 16: 9-12
  2. Priftis KN, Chrousos GP. (2009) Neuroimmunomodulation in asthma: focus on the hypothalamicpituitary-

adrenal axis. Introduction. Neuroimmunomodulation. 16(5): 263-4.

  1. Priftis KN, Papadimitriou A, Anthracopoulos MB, Fretzayas A, Chrousos GP. (2009) Endocrine-immune

interactions in adrenal function of asthmatic children on inhaled corticosteroids.

Neuroimmunomodulation 16(5): 333-9.

  1. Chrousos GP, Kino T, Charmandari E. (2009) Evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

function in childhood and adolescence. Neuroimmunomodulation 16(5): 272-83.

  1. Pervanidou P, Kolaitis G and Chrousos GP ( 2009) Bio-Behavioral Consequences of Traumatic Stress in

Childhood and Adolescence: The Effects of War on Children’s Mental Health, Growth and

Development. In: War and Suicide, Sher L and Vilens A. (Eds.), Nova Science Publ. Inc. in press.

  1. *Kino T, Su YA, Chrousos GP (2009) Human glucocorticoid receptor isoform beta: recent

understanding of its potential implications in physiology and pathophysiology. Mol Life Sci (ePublcation

ahead of print)

  1. Chrousos GP and Kino T (2009) Glucocorticoid Signaling in the Cell: Expanding Clinical Implications

to Complex Human Behavioral and Somatic Disorders In: Glucocorticoids and Mood: Clinical

Manifestations, Risk Factors, and Molecular Mechanisms. Proc. NY Acad Sci 1179: 153-166

  1. Chrousos G.P. (2009) Chapter 39. Adrenocorticosteroids and Adrenocortical Antagonists. Eds. B.

Katzung, SB Masters and AJ Trevor, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 11th Edition, Lange, McGraw-

Hill, New York, New York. 681-697

85

  1. Chrousos G.P., (2009) Chapter 40. The Gonadal Hormones and Inhibitors. Eds. B. Katzung, SB

Masters and AJ Trevor, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 11th Edition, Lange, McGraw-Hill, New

York, New York 699-726

  1. *Charmandari E, Chrousos GP, Kino T. (2009) Identification of Natural Human Glucocorticoid Receptor

(hGR) Mutations or Polymorphisms and their Functional Consequences at the Hormone-Receptor

Interaction Level. Methods Mol Biol. 590: 33-60

  1. *Meduri GU, Annane D, Chrousos GP, Marik PE, Sinclair SE. (2009) Activation and Regulation of

Systemic Inflammation in ARDS: Rationale For Prolonged Glucocorticoid Therapy. Chest Dec;136

(6):1631-43. Epub 2009 Oct 3. Review

  1. *Nicolaides NC, Galata Z, Kino T, Chrousos GP, Charmandari E (2010) The Human Glucocorticoid

Receptor: Molecular Basis of Biologic Function. Steroids. 75(1): 1-12.

  1. *Zoumakis E, Chrousos GP. (2010) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonists: An Update.

Endocr Dev. 17: 36-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24

  1. Chrousos G (2009) Health and Climate Change. International Conference: Climate Change and

Challenges for the Future Generations. June 2-3, 2009, Athens, Greece. Livanis Publications Athens,

Greece p 102-111.

  1. Kino T and ChrousosGP (2009) Tumor-associated, Estrogen Receptor-related Antigen EBAG9 as a

Potential Link between Intracellular Vesicle Trafficking, Immune Homeostasis and Malignancy. Mol

Interv 9: 294-298

  1. *Nader N, Chrousos GP and Kino T (2010) Interactions of the Circadian CLOCK System and the HPA

Axis. Trends Endocrinol Metab

  1. *Kino T, James H. Segars JH and Chrousos GP (2010) The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Brx: A

Link between Osmotic Stress, Inflammation and Organ Physiology and Pathophysiology. Exp Rev

Endocrinol Metab 5: 603-614

  1. Tsara V, Amfilochiou A, Papagrigorakis JM, Georgopoulos D, Liolios E, Kadiths A, Koudoumnakis E,

Aulonitou E, Emporiadou M, Tsakanikos M, Chatzis A, Choulakis M, Chrousos G. (2010) Guidelines

for Diagnosing and Treating Sleep related Breathing Disorders in Adults and Children (Part 3:

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children, Diagnosis and Treatment). Hippokratia. 2010 Jan; 14(1): 57-62.

  1. *Kaltsas G, Vgontzas A and Chrousos GP (2010) Fatigue, Endocrinopathies and Metabolic Disorders.

PM &R 2:393-398

  1. Kanaka-Gantenbein C, Sakka S, Chrousos GP (2010) Assisted Reproduction and Its Neuroendocrine

Impact on the Offspring. Prog Brain Res. 182C: 161-174

  1. Pervanidou P, Chrousos GP (2010) Neuroendocrinology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Prog Brain

Res. 182C: 149-160

  1. *Papadimitriou A, Nicolaidou P, Fretzayas A, Chrousos GP (2010) Constitutional Advancement of

Growth, a.k.a. Early Growth Acceleration, Predicts Early Puberty and Childhood Obesity. J Clin

Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. *Chrousos GP (2010) Perspective: Stress and Sex versus Immunity and Inflammation. Science Sign 3,

pe36

  1. Vrekoussis T, Kalantaridou SN, Mastorakos G, Zoumakis E, Makrigiannakis A, Syrrou M, Lavasidis

LG, Relakis K, Chrousos GP (2010) The role of stress in female reproduction and pregnancy: an update.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Sep; 1205(1):69-75. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05686.x.

86

  1. *Bacopoulou F, Greydanus DE, Chrousos GP (2010) Reproductive and Contraceptive Issues in

Chronically Ill Adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 15(6):389-404.

  1. *Kino T, Chrousos GP. Acetylation-mediated Epigenetic Regulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor

Activity: Circadian Rhythm-associated Alterations of Glucocorticoid Actions in Target Tissues. Mol Cell

Endocrinol. 2010 Dec 9. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. *Kino T, Chrousos GP (2011) Circadian CLOCK-Mediated Regulation of Target-Tissue Sensitivity to

Glucocorticoids: Implications for Cardiometabolic Diseases. Endocr Dev. 2011; 20:116-26. Epub 2010

Dec 16

  1. Chrousos G (2011) Q&A: Primary Generalized Glucocorticoid Resistance. BMC Med 9:27
  2. *Kassi E, Pervanidou P, Kaltsas G, Chrousos G (2011) Metabolic Syndrome: Definitions and

Controversies. BMC Med. 2011 May 5; 9(1): 48. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pervanidou P, Chrousos GP (2011) Stress and Behavior: The Role of Nutrients with Emphasis on

Omega- 3 Fatty Acids. Simopoulos AP (ed): Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People.

World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 2011, vol 102, pp 44–52

  1. *Malakasioti G, Gourgoulianis K, Chrousos G, Kaditis A. (2011) Interactions of obstructive sleepdisordered

breathing with recurrent wheezing or asthma and their effects on sleep quality. Pediatr

Pulmonol. 2011 Aug 1. doi: 10.1002/ppul.21497. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pervanidou P, Chrousos GP. (2011) Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and

adolescence. Int J Pediatr Obes. Suppl 1:21-8.

  1. Pervanidou P and Chrousos GP (2011) Emotional/ Behavioral Disorders and Obesity in Childhood: A

Clinician’s Perspective. The European Health Psychologist 13: 48-51

  1. Kino T, Charmandari E, Chrousos GP Glucocorticoid receptor: implications for rheumatic diseases. Clin

Exp Rheumatol 2011; 29 (Suppl. 68): S32-S41.

  1. Pervanidou P, and Chrousos GP. Metabolic consequences of stress during childhood and adolescence.

Metabolism. 2011 Dec 5. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kino T, Charmandari E, and Chrousos GP. Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical

System. In: Fink G, Pfaff DW, Levine JE, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrinology. London, Waltham,

San Diego: Academic press, Elsevier; 2012:639-658. ISBN: 9780123750976

  1. Tsitsami E, Dermentzoglou V, Moschovi M, and Chrousos GP (2011) Chronic Recurrent Multifocal

Osteomyelitis with Concomitant Features of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Case Rep Rheum (in press)

  1. Chrousos GP, Kalantaridou SN, Margioris AN, Gravanis A (2012) The “Self-plagiarism” Oxymoron:

Can One Steal from Oneself? Eur J Clin Invest 2012 Jan 5 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2012.02645.x.

[Epub ahead of print]

  1. Halberg F, Cornélissen G, Czaplicki J, Schwartzkopff O, Sanchez de la Pena S, Finley J, Thomas F, Kino

T, and Chrousos G (2011) Coexisting wrestling lunisolar periods in a selenosensitive circulation rather

than circadian free-running? Leibniz Online 09/2011 Zeitschrift der Leibniz-Sozietät e. V. ISSN#1863-

3285 http://www.leibniz-sozietaet.de /journal/ archive/ 09_10/ Halberg_et_al.pdf

  1. Chrousos G.P. (2012) Chapter 39. Adrenocorticosteroids and Adrenocortical Antagonists. Eds. B.

Katzung, SB Masters, and AJ Trevor, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 12th Edition, Lange, McGraw-

Hill, New York, New York. 697-713

  1. Chrousos G.P. (2012) Chapter 40. The Gonadal Hormones and Inhibitors. Eds. B. Katzung, SB Masters

and AJ Trevor, Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, 12th Edition, Lange, McGraw-Hill, New York, New

York 715-741

87

  1. Chrousos GP. (2012) Stress in Early Life: A Developmental and Evolutionary Perspective. In: Z.

Hochberg. Evo-Devo of Child Growth. Wiley-Blackwell Co, Hoboken, NJ. p 29-40

  1. Kaltsas G, Zannas AS , and Chrousos GP (2012) Chapter 5. Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis and

Cardiovascular Disease in P. Hjemdahl et al. (eds.), Stress and Cardiovascular Disease, DOI

10.1007/978-1-84882-419-5_5, © Springer-Verlag, London Ltd. p 71-87

  1. Kino T, Charmandari E, Chrousos GP (2012) Chapter 29. Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-

Adrenocortical System. In: Fink G, Pfaff DW, Levine JE, eds. Handbook of Neuroendocrinology.

London, Waltham, San Diego: Academic Press, Elsevier; 2012:639-658. ISBN: 9780123750976, p 640-

654

  1. Chrousos GP, Kalantaridou SN, Margioris AN, Gravanis A (2012) The “Self-plagiarism” Oxymoron:

Can One Steal from Oneself? Authors Reply. Eur J Clin Invest 2012 Mar 3. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-

2362.2012.02664.x. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Mischak H, Ioannidis JP, Argiles A, Attwood TK, Bongcam-Rudloff E, Broenstrup M, Charonis A,

Chrousos GP, Delles C, Dominiczak A, Dylag T, Ehrich J, Egido J, Findeisen P, Jankowski J, Johnson

RW, Julien BA, Lankisch T, Leung HY, Maahs D, Magni F, Manns MP, Manolis E, Mayer G, Navis G,

Novak J, Ortiz A, Persson F, Peter K, Riese HH, Rossing P, Sattar N, Spasovski G, Thongboonkerd V,

Vanholder R, Schanstra JP, Vlahou A. Implementation of proteomic biomarkers: making it work. Eur J

Clin Invest. 2012 Mar 27. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2012.02674.x. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Kaltsas G, Chrisoulidou A, Piaditis G, Kassi E, Chrousos G (2012) Current status and controversies in

adrenal incidentalomas. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Oct 4. pii: S1043-2760(12)00150-6. doi:

10.1016/j.tem.2012.09.001. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Pervanidou P and Chrousos GP. (2012) Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents:

Neuroendocrine Perspectives. Sci Signal. 2012 Oct 9; 5(245):pt6.

  1. Charmandari E, Achermann JC, Carel JC, Soder O, and Chrousos GP. (2012) Stress response and child

health. Sci Signal. 2012 Oct 30;5 (248):mr1

  1. Charmandari E, Kino T, Chrousos GP. Primary generalized familial and sporadic glucocorticoid

resistance (Chrousos syndrome) and hypersensitivity. Endocr Dev. 2013; 24:67-85. doi:

10.1159/000342505. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

  1. Contoreggi C, Lee MR, Chrousos G. Addiction and corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor

antagonist medications. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Feb 11. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12007. [Epub ahead of print]

  1. Tsiouli E, Alexopoulos EC, Stefanaki C, Darviri C, Chrousos GP. Effects of diabetes-related family

stress on glycemic control in young patients with type 1 diabetes: Systematic review. Can Fam Physician.

2013 Feb;59(2):143-9.

Βιβλία

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Lipsett M.B. (Eds) (1986) Steroid Hormone Resistance: Mechanisms and

Clinical Aspects. In the Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 196, Plenum

Press, New York, (439 pages, ISBN 0-306-42229-8).

  1. D’Agata R., Chrousos G.P. (Eds) (1987) Recent Advances in Adrenal Regulation and Function. Serono

Symposia Series, Vol. 40, Raven Press, New York, (311 pages, ISBN-0-8816-178-9).

  1. Chrousos G.P., Loriaux D.L., Gold P.W. (Eds) (1988) Mechanisms of Physical and Emotional Stress. In

the Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Vol. 245, Plenum Press, New York. (542

pages, ISBN-0-306-430-177).

88

  1. Ludecke D., Chrousos G.P., Tolis G. (Eds) (1990) Cushing’s Syndrome and Other Hypercortisolemic

States. In the Series: Progress in Endocrine Research and Therapy, Vol. 5, Raven Press, New York (318

pages, ISBN-0-88167-718-3).

  1. Tolis G., Bringer J., Chrousos G.P. (Eds.) (1993) Intraovarian Regulators and the Polycystic-Ovary

Syndrome. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., Vol. 687, New York (320 pages, ISBN-089 766-779-4 and 0-89

766-780-8).

  1. Chrousos G.P., McCarty R., Cizza G., Pacak K., Sternberg E., Gold P.W., Kvetnanski R. (Eds.) (1995)

Stress: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., Vol. 771, New York. (755

pages, ISBN 0-89766-943-6, cloth; 0-89766-944-4, paper).

  1. Creatsas G., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G.P. (Eds.) (1997) Adolescent Gynecology and Endocrinology:

Basic and Clinical Aspects. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., Vol. 816, New York. (470 pages, ISBN 1-

57331-038-7, cloth; 1-57331-039-5, paper).

  1. McCann S., Sternberg E.M., Lipton J., Chrousos G.P., Gold P.W., Smith C. (Eds.) (1998)

Neuroimmunomodulation: Molecular Aspects, Integrative Systems and Clinical Advances. Ann. N.Y.

Acad. Sci. Vol. 840, New York (866 pages, ISBN 1-57331-072-7, cloth; 1-57331-073-5, paper).

  1. Creatsas G., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G. P., Eds. (2000) “The Young Woman at the Rise of the 21st

Century: Gynecological and Reproductive Issues in Health and Disease,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 900: (445

pages, ISBN 1-57331-227-4).

  1. Margioris, A.N. and Chrousos, G.P. (Eds.) (2001) Adrenal Disorders. Humana Press: Totowa, New

Jersey, (424 pages, ISBN 0-89603-411-1).

  1. Chrousos G.P. Olefsky J.M. and Samols E. (Eds.) (2002) Hormone Resistance and Hypersensitivity

States. In Modern Endocrinology Series. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins Publ. Co. Philadelphia Pa.

(542 pages, ISBN 0-7817-1497-4).

  1. Chrousos G.P. (Editor-in-chief) (2002-) Pediatric Endocrinology Electronic Textbook,

www.eMedicine.com

  1. Chrousos G.P. (Associate Editor) (2003-) Adrenal Diseases. On-line Textbook, Endocrinology and

Metabolism, www.Endotext .com

  1. Chrousos G.P. (Associate Editor) (2004) Adrenal Physiology and Disorders. Encyclopedia of

Endocrinology and Endocrine Disorders, Elsevier, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, and San Diego, CA.

ISBN 0-12-475570-4 (set of 4 volumes)

  1. Creatsas G., Mastorakos G., Chrousos G. P., Eds. (2003) “Challenges on Women’s Health and Disease.

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. Vol. 997 (390 pages, ISBN 1-57331-458-7).

  1. Geenen V. and Chrousos GP Eds. (2004) Immunoendocrinology in Health and Disease. Marcel Dekker

Inc. New York (ISBN: 0-8247-5060-8).

  1. Chrousos GP, Associate Editor (2007) Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd Edition Elsevier, Academic Press,

Oxford, UK, and San Diego, CA. (set of 3 volumes, ISBN: 978-0-12-088503-9).

  1. Kino T, Charmandari E, Chrousos G. Eds. (2004) Glucocorticoid Action: Basic and Clinical

Implications Ann N Y Acad Sci. Vol 1024 (221 pages, ISBN: 1-57331-557-5).

  1. Alesci S, Manoli I, Costello R, Oates P, Gold PW. Chrousos GP and Blackman M (Eds.) (2004)

Carnitine: The Science behind a Conditionally Essential Nutrient. Ann NY Acad Sci. Vol 1033 (199

pages, ISBN: 1-57331-555 -9)

  1. Chrousos GP; Tsigos C (Eds.) (2006) Stress, Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci. Vol

083, published Nov 2006 (345 pages, ISBN: 1-57331-625-3)

89

  1. Chrousos GP, Kaltsas GA, Mastorakos G (2006) Neuroendocrine and Immune Crosstalk. Ann NY Acad

Sci. Vol 1088, published Nov 2006 (412 pages, ISBN: 1-57331-623-7)

  1. Creatsas G, Mastorakos, Chrousos GP, Eds.(2006) Women’s Health and Disease: Gynecologic,

Endocrine, and Reproductive Issues. Ann NY Acad Sci. Vol 1092 (482 pages, ISBN: 0077-8923)

  1. Pandi-Perumal SR, Cardinali DP, Chrousos GP, Eds (2007) Neuroimmunology of Sleep. Springer Corp.

(361 pages, ISBN: 0-387-69144-8)

  1. del Rey A, Chrousos G and Besedovsky H, Eds (2008) Neuroimmune Biology Vol 7. The

Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Elsevier Co Oxford UK (394 pages, ISBN 978-0-444-53040-0)

  1. Antoniou ASG, Cooper CL, Chrousos GP, Spielberger CD, Eysenck MW, Eds (2009) Handbook of

Managerial Behavior and Occupational Health. Edward Elgar Cheltenham Publishing Co, UK,

Northhampton MA, USA (452 pages, ISBN 978 1 848440951)

26 Martini L, Chrousos GP, Labrie F, Pacak K, Pfaff D, Eds (2010) Progress in Brain Research, Volume

181: Neuroendocrinology: The Normal Neuroendocrine System, 1st Edition, Elsevier Science (ISBN:

9780444536174)

  1. Martini L, Chrousos GP, Labrie F, Pacak K, Pfaff D, Eds (2010) Progress in Brain Research, Volume

182: Neuroendocrinology: Pathological Situations and Diseases, 1st Edition, Elsevier Science (ISBN:

9780444537393 )

  1. Ghizzoni L, Cappa M, Chrousos G, Loche S and Magghnie M, Eds (2011) Pediatric Adrenal Diseases. In

the Series: Endocrine Development Vol 20 S Karger AG. Basel (216 pages, ISBN 978-3-8055-9643-5)

  1. Koch, Christian A; Chrousos, George P, Eds. (2013) Endocrine Hypertension: Underlying Mechanisms

and Therapy Series: Contemporary Endocrinology 2013, XIII, 317 p. Humana Press Hardcover, Springer

(317 pages, 33 illus., 26 in color, ISBN 978-1-60761-547-7)

 

ΔΗΜΟΣΙΕΥΣΕΙΣ

Διάκριση του ΕΚΠΑ στον πίνακα κατάταξης «US News – Best Global University Rankings 2018»

Δημοσιεύθηκε για 4η συνεχόμενη χρονιά από τον ειδησεογραφικό οργανισμό “US News”, η παγκόσμια κατάταξη Πανεπιστημίων για το 2018.  Το Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών βρίσκεται στη θέση 286 μεταξύ των 1250 Πανεπιστημίων που περιλαμβάνονται στην κατάταξη και την 1η θέση μεταξύ των 8 Ελληνικών Ιδρυμάτων που βρίσκονται σε αυτή. Μάλιστα σε σχέση με την περσινή κατάταξη το Πανεπιστήμιο μας βελτίωσε τη θέση του στην κατάταξη κατά 5 θέσεις.

Η κατάταξη του US News για τα καλύτερα Πανεπιστήμια στον κόσμο δημιουργήθηκε με στόχο να παρέχει εικόνα για το πώς τα πανεπιστήμια μπορούν να συγκριθούν παγκοσμίως. Από το σύνολο, πανεπιστημίων που δραστηριοποιούνται παγκοσμίως, η τελική συνολική κατάταξη των 1250 καλύτερων Πανεπιστημίων καλύπτει ένα εύρος 60 χωρών. Το πρώτο βήμα για την παραγωγή αυτών των κατατάξεων, οι οποίες τροφοδοτούνται από την εταιρεία Thomson Reuters (InCitesTM research analytics solutions), περιλαμβάνει τη δημιουργία μιας πρώτης ομάδας των καλύτερων  πανεπιστημίων, τα οποία χρησιμοποιούνται σε μια δεύτερη φάση για την κατάταξη των 1250 κορυφαίων.

Για να συμπεριληφθεί ένα Πανεπιστήμιο στα 1250, θα πρέπει  πρώτα να είναι μεταξύ των κορυφαίων 250 πανεπιστημίων στα αποτελέσματα της παγκόσμιας έρευνας φήμης της Thomson Reuters. Στη συνέχεια, ένα ίδρυμα πρέπει να είναι μεταξύ εκείνων που είχε τον μεγαλύτερο αριθμό δημοσιεύσεων κατά τη διάρκεια των τελευταίων πέντε ετών και τα άρθρα αυτά να αναφέρονται ή να αναπαράγονται από τα κορυφαία 200 της προαναφερθείσας έρευνας φήμης.

Το «U.S. News & World Report» αξιολογεί τα 1250 καλύτερα Ιδρύματα χρησιμοποιώντας ένα ευρύ φάσμα 13 διαφορετικών κριτηρίων:

  •     Παγκόσμια Ερευνητική Φήμη (12.5%)
  •     Περιφερειακή Ερευνητική Φήμη (12.5%)
  •     Δημοσιεύσεις(10%)
  •     Συγγράμματα  (2.5%)
  •     Συνέδρια (2.5%)
  •     Σταθμισμένη επίδραση των ετεροαναφορών (10%)
  •     Σύνολο αναφορών (7.5%)
  •     Αριθμός δημοσιεύσεων που βρίσκονται μεταξύ των 10% περισσότερο αναφερόμενων δημοσιεύσων (12.5%)
  •     Ποσοστό του συνόλου των δημοσιεύσεων που βρίσκονται μεταξύ των 10% περισσότερο αναφερόμενων δημοσιεύσεων (10%)
  •     Διεθνείς Συνεργασίες (5%)
  •     Ποσοστό δημοσιεύσεων με διεθνή συνεργασία επί του συνόλου των δημοσιεύσεων (5%)
  •     Αριθμός άρθρων με μεγάλο αριθμό αναφορών που βρίσκονται στο top 1%  (5%)
  •     Ποσοστό του συνόλου των δημοσιεύσεων που βρίσκονται μεταξύ των 1% των άρθρων με τις περισσότερες αναφορές (5%)

Από τα προσφάτως δημοσιευμένα στοιχεία του «U.S. News & World Report» προκύπτει για το Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών ότι κατέχει για το 2018 τη θέση 286 παγκοσμίως και είναι το 1ο μεταξύ των 8 Ελληνικών Πανεπιστημίων που αναφέρονται στο συγκεκριμένο πίνακα κατάταξης.

Πηγή: US News – Best Global University Rankings https://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/greece

Σε Ευρωπαϊκό επίπεδο, το Ε.Κ.Π.Α. κατέχει τη θέση 129 μεταξύ των 514 Πανεπιστημίων που συμπεριλήφθηκαν στην αξιολόγηση.

Πηγή: US News – Best Global University Rankings http://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/search?region=&…

Ο οργανισμός που συντάσσει τον συγκεκριμένο πίνακα κατάταξης παραθέτει ως «επίδοση» και τη θέση του κάθε ιδρύματος στους 13 επιμέρους δείκτες που αξιολογεί. Στον πίνακα 3 παρουσιάζεται η επίδοση του ΕΚΠΑ στους συγκεκριμένους δείκτες.

Άξιο μνείας το κριτήριο «Αριθμός άρθρων με μεγάλο αριθμό αναφορών που βρίσκονται στο top 1%  των άρθρων με τις περισσότερες αναφορές», όπου το ΕΚΠΑ καταλαμβάνει την 167η θέση παγκοσμίως.

Πίνακας 3: Η θέση – επίδοση του ΕΚΠΑ με βάση τους δεκατρείς (13) δείκτες  του πίνακα Κατάταξης US News – Best Global University Rankings

Πηγή: US News – Best Global University Rankings http://www.usnews.com/education/best-global-universities/national-and-ka…

Θα πρέπει να επισημανθεί ότι στον συγκεκριμένο πίνακα κατάταξης το Εθνικό και Καποδιστριακό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών εμφανίζεται σε υψηλές θέσεις παγκοσμίως  σε διάφορα επιμέρους επιστημονικά πεδία και αντικείμενα:

v  Στην Φαρμακολογία και Τοξικολογία στην θέση 118

v  Στην Ανοσολογία στη θέση 120

v  Στις Φυσικές Επιστήμες στη θέση 159

v  Στην Κλινική Ιατρική στη θέση 179

v  Στις Κοινωνικές Επιστήμες και Δημόσια Υγεία στη θέση 195

v  Στη Βιολογία και Βιοχημεία στη θέση 383

v  Στη Μηχανική στη θέση 425

v  Στη Χημεία στη θέση 529

Σύνδρομο Πολυκυστικών Ωοθηκών. Όχι μόνο μια αναπαραγωγική διαταραχή

Το σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών (ΣΠΩ), η συχνότερη ενδοκρινοπάθεια των γυναικών αναπαραγωγικής ηλικίας (5-8% των γυναικών), περιγράφηκε για πρώτη φορά το 1935 από τους Stein και Leventhal. Εβδομήνατα πέντε χρόνια μετά αποτελεί μια ετερογενή ενδοκρινική και μεταβολική διαταραχή αγνώστου αιτιολογίας η οποία βρίσκεται στο επίκεντρο της σύγχρονης ιατρικής έρευνας λόγω της συχνότητας της κλινικής ετερογένειας, καθώς επίσης και των μακροπρόθεσμων μεταβολικών και καρδιαγγειακών επιπτώσεων της.

Το σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών αποτελεί κλινική διάγνωση, που χαρακτηρίζεται από την παρουσία δύο, τουλάχιστον, από τα παρακάτω τρία χαρακτηριστικά:

Α) χρόνια ανωοθυλακιορρηξία (που εκδηλώνεται ως αραιομηνόρροια ή αμηνόρροια, δηλαδή λιγότερο από έξι κύκλους κατά την διάρκεια ενός έτους).

Β) Βιοχημική υπερανδογοναιμία (αύξηση ανδρογόνων στο αίμα) ή υπερανδρογονισμός (κλινική εικόνα υπερανδογοναιμίας χωρίς ανάλογα βιοχημικά ευρήματα)

Γ) Πολυκυστική μορφολογία ωοθηκών κατά τον υπερηχογραφικό έλεγχο

Σημαντική προϋπόθεση για την ορθή διάγνωση του ΣΠΩ είναι ο αποκλεισμός άλλων ενδοκρινολογικών παθήσεων ή/και χρήση φαρμάκων που μπορεί να προκαλέσουν ανωοθυλακιορρηξία και κλινική ή βιοχημική υπερανδρογοναιμία.

Η αιτιοπαθογένεια του ΣΠΩ δεν έχει ακόμη διευκρινισθεί, αν και υπάρχουν διάφορες θεωρίες για τις αιτίες εμφάνισης του. Οι κυριότερες είναι η διαταραχή της ωοθηκικής και, ενδεχομένως, της επινεφριδικής λειτουργίας, η θεωρία της αντίστασης της ινσουλίνης και της αντισταθμιστικής υπερινσουλιναιμίας καθώς και η θεωρία της διαταραχής έκκρισης υποθαλαμικών (GnRH) και υποφυσιακών (LH) ορμονών και οι τρεις τους με κοινό παρανομαστή  την αυξημένη παραγωγή ανδρογόνων. Η οικογενής εμφάνιση του συνδρόμου είναι γνωστή από πολλά χρόνια. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι αρκετές φορές υπάρχει θετικό οικογενειακό ιστορικό για ΣΠΩ στην υπό εξέταση ασθενή μας.

Όπως προαναφέρθηκε στα κριτήρια διάγνωσης οι ασθενείς συνήθως προσέρχονται για ένα ή περισσότερα συμπτώματα όπως διαταραχές του κύκλου (αραιοί/συνχοί/απουσία κύκλων), υπογονιμότητα, δασυτριχισμό, ακμή, ανδρικού τύπου αλωπέκια, ακμή. Η αναγνώριση του συνδρόμου στην πλήρη του κλινική έκφραση δεν παρουσιάζει παθογνωμονικά σημεία και η φαινοτυπική του ετερογένεια αποτελεί διαγνωστική πρόκληση. Εδώ παίζει σημαντικό ρόλο η αξιολόγηση της ασθενούς από Ενδοκρινολόγο ώστε με την λήψη του ιατρικού ιστορικού, την αντικειμενική εξέταση και την διενέργεια κατάλληλων εξετάσεων να γίνει η σωστή διάγνωση και επομένως σωστή και εξατομικευμένη θεραπεία.

‘Οσον αφορά την θεραπευτική προσέγγιση της ασθενούς έχει μεγάλη σημασία  να λαμβάνουμε υπόψη ότι το ΣΠΩ θεωρείται κατεξοχήν αναπαραγωγική αλλά και μεταβολική διαταραχή. Το 30-75% των γυναικών με ΣΠΩ είναι παχύσαρκες και στην πλειοψηφία τους εμφανίζουν ανδρικού τύπου κατανομή με συσσώρευση σπλαγχνικού λίπους στην κοιλιακή χώρα, αυτό που πολύ συχνά ονομάζουμε «κακό λίπος» και που ευθύνεται, στο πολύ γνωστό σε όλους μας, Μεταβολικό Σύνδρομο. Επίσης στις υπέρβαρες και παχύσαρκες προεμμηνοπαυσιακές γυναίκες ο επιπολασμός του ΣΠΩ είναι τετραπλάσιος από αυτόν στον γενικό πληθυσμό. Γυναίκες με ΣΠΩ και αραιομηνόρροια (παχύσαρκες και μη) εμφανίζουν αυξημένο κίνδυνο εμφάνισης Σακχαρώδη Διαβήτη τύπου 2  ο οποίος είναι ακόμα μεγαλύτερος όταν συνυπάρχει παχυσαρκία και οικογενειακό ιστορικό σακχαρώδη διαβήτη. Επίσης το ΣΠΩ συνοδεύεται από αύξηση του κινδύνου εμφάνισης υπερχοληστερολαιμίας και υπερτριγλυκεριδαιμίας, ενώ στις μετεμμηνοπαυσιακές γυναίκες με ιστορικό ΣΠΩ αυξάνεται κατακόρυφα η συχνότητα εμφάνισης αρτηριακής πίεσης.

Συνοψίζοντας, η πολυσυστηματική κλινική έκφραση του ΣΠΩ επιτάσσει αντίστοιχα πολυμετωπική θεραπευτική προσέγγιση και εδώ πέραν της εξατομικευμένης φαρμακευτικής αγωγής, πρωταρχικό ρόλο παίζει η αλλαγή τρόπου ζωής, δηλαδή υιοθέτηση σωστής διατροφικής συμπεριφοράς και σωματικής άσκησης.

ΟΖΟΙ ΤΟΥ ΘΥΡΕΟΕΙΔΟΥΣ

Ο θυρεοειδής βρίσκεται στην μπροστινή επιφάνεια του τραχήλου (λαιμού), έχει το σχήμα πεταλούδας και πολλές φορές γίνεται ορατός κατά την διάρκεια της κατάποσης (τον βλέπουμε να ανεβοκατεβαίνει). Παράγει ορμόνες, τριιωδοθυρονίνη (Τ3) και θυροξίνη (Τ4) οι οποίες διαχειρίζονται επί το πλείστον την ενέργεια που χρησιμοποιεί και αποθηκεύει ο οργανισμός μας, με λίγα λόγια τον μεταβολισμό μας. Ο θυρεοειδής όμως ελέγχεται από έναν αδένα που βρίσκεται στον εγκέφαλο, την υπόφυση, η οποία παράγοντας θυροτροπίνη (TSH) διεγείρει την έκκριση των θυρεοειδικών ορμονών (Τ4,Τ3).  Αυτοί οι δύο αδένες βρίσκονται συνεχώς σε στενή συνεργασία και οποιαδήποτε λειτουργική διαταραχή του θυρεοειδούς επηρεάζει αντιστρόφως ανάλογα την έκκριση της TSH.

Οι όζοι του θυρεοειδούς είναι στρογγυλές ή οβάλ περιοχές θυρεοειδικού ιστού συνήθως διαφορετικής σύστασης σχετικά με το υπόλοιπο παρέγχυμα. Είναι συχνό εύρημα στο γενικό πληθυσμό, ειδικά τα τελευταία χρόνια χάρη στην ευρεία χρήση του υπερηχογραφήματος. Οι παράγοντες που μπορεί να προκαλέσουν την δημιουργία των όζων είναι ποικίλοι, ενώ περίπου το 95% αυτών είναι καλοήθεις.

ΔΙΑΓΝΩΣΗ

Υπάρχουν διάφορα διαγνωστικά εργαλεία για την καλύτερη ταυτοποίηση ενός όζου (αν πρόκειται για καλοήθη ή κακοήθη) και επομένως για την βέλτιστη αντιμετώπισή του (χειρουργική αφαίρεση, παρακολούθηση ή άλλη θεραπεία). Η διαγνωστική προσέγγιση δεν είναι πάντα ίδια για όλους τους ασθενείς.

Καταρχάς εάν ένας ή περισσότεροι όζοι βρεθούν κατά την διάρκεια της κλινικής εξέτασης (ψηλάφηση του θυρεοειδόυς) ή κατά την διενέργεια υπερηχογραφήματος (triplex)  καρωτίδων, αξονικής/μαγνητικής τραχήλου για άλλο λόγο ο γιατρός σας πρέπει να σας παραπέμψει σε Ενδοκρινολόγο για να γίνουν πιο ειδικές εξετάσεις:

-Σε όλους τους ασθενείς πρέπει να ζητηθεί ορμονολογικός έλεγχος για να αξιολογηθεί η λειτουργία του θυρεοειδούς. Σε μερικούς ασθενείς μπορεί να ζητηθούν και τα αντισώματα έναντι του θυρεοειδούς.

– Υπερηχογράφημα θυρεοειδούς για την αξιολόγηση των διαστάσεων και της μορφολογίας του όζου, την ύπαρξη έτερων όζων, την ηχοδομή του υπόλοιπου παρεγχύματος και την αξιολόγηση των τραχηλικών λεμφαδένων.

-Εάν δεν υπάρχει διαταραχή της θυρεοειδικής λειτουργίας τότε ανάλογα με τα υπερηχογραφικά χαρακτηριστικά ή/και το μέγεθος του όζου καθώς και το ατομικό ή/και οικογενειακό ιστορικό μπορεί να χρειαστεί άμεσα παρακέντηση, τώρα πλέον υπό καθοδήγηση υπερήχων, για να αναλυθούν τα κύτταρα του όζου.

-Εάν ο ορμονολογικός έλεγχος αναδείξει υπερλειτουργία (TSH  στα κατώτερα φυσιολογικά επίπεδα ή κατεσταλμένο) τότε χρειάζεται να γίνει πρώτα σπινθηρογράφημα του θυρεοειδούς για να δούμε εάν πρόκειται για θερμό όζο (όζο δηλαδή που προσλαμβάνει το ραδιοφάρμακο) ή ψυχρό όζο (δεν προσλαμβάνει το ραδιοφάρμακο). Στην τελευταία περίπτωση, εάν και εντέλει το μεγαλύτερο μέρος των ψυχρών όζων αποδεικνύεται καλοήθους σύστασης, χρήζει περεταίρω διερεύνηση με παρακέντηση για να γίνει κυτταρολογική εξέταση (δες πάνω). Στους θερμούς όζους δεν χρειάζεται να γίνει παρακέντηση διότι σπανιότατα πρόκειται για κακοήθεια.

-Στην περίπτωση που συνυπάρχει υποθυροειδισμός (αυξημένα επίπεδα TSH)  και χρήζει θεραπεία υποκατάστασης με θυροξίνη, τότε η διερεύνηση του/των όζων, επί τον πλείστον, είναι προτιμότερο να διεξαχθεί μόλις  ομαλοποιηθεί η θυρεοειδική λειτουργία.

-Σε μερικές περιπτώσεις ο Ενδοκρινολόγος μπορεί να ζητήσει την μέτρηση της καλσιτονίνης η οποία είναι αρκετά αυξημένη σε έναν τύπο καρκίνου του θυρεοειδούς, το μυελοειδές καρκίνωμα. Μετρίως αυξημένα επίπεδα καλσιτονίνης μπορεί να βρεθούν και σε άλλες καλοήθεις διαταραχές του θυρεοειδούς ή σε άλλες παθήσεις και στην προκειμένη περίπτωση μπορεί να χρειαστεί περαιτέρω διερεύνηση.  

ΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑ

Εάν προκειται για υπερλειτουργικό/θερμό όζο τότε η θεραπεία μπορεί να είναι από του στόματος αγωγή με σκοπό να καταστείλει την σύνθεση των θυρεοειδικών ορμονών, χειρουργική αφαίρεση ή θεραπεία με ραδιενεργό ιώδιο. Η επιλογή της κατάλληλης θεραπείας εξαρτάται από την ηλικία του ασθενούς, τα χαρακτηριστικά του όζου και την παρουσία έτερων όζων, τις αντενδείξεις ως προς μια θεραπεία έναντι κάποιας άλλης καθώς και τις προτιμήσεις του ίδιου του ασθενούς.

Εάν χρειαστεί παρακέντηση είτε ως εξέταση πρώτης επιλογής είτε έπειτα από σπινθηρογράφημα διότι ο όζος είναι ψυχρός η θεραπευτική προσέγγιση εξαρτάται από τα ευρήματα της κυτταρολογικής εξέτασης.

-Σε μερικές περιπτώσεις το υλικό δεν είναι επαρκές για την σωστή κυτταρολογική ανάλυση όποτε η παρακέντηση πρέπει να επαναληφθεί.

-Σε ένα μικρό ποσοστό (10%) η κυτταρολογική εξέταση είναι αδιευκρίνιστη, με λίγα λόγια αυτό που λέμε ευρήματα «γκρίζας ζώνης». Στην προκειμένη περίπτωση η θεραπευτική επιλογή μπορεί να είναι χειρουργική αφαίρεση, επανάληψη της παρακέντησης ή/και στενή παρακολούθηση ανάλογα με την ηλικία του ασθενούς, παρουσία τυχόν συννοσηροτήτων, καθώς και παραγόντων που αυξάνουν την υποψία για κακοήθεια (κλινικά, υπερηχογραφικά στοιχεία, ατομικό ή/και οικογενειακό ιστορικό)

-Στις περιπτώσεις που η κυτταρολογική εξέταση είναι συμβατή με ευρήματα καλοήθειας τότε ο ασθενής χρήζει περιοδική παρακολούθηση του όζου. Εάν σε βάθος χρόνου τα χαρακτηριστικά του όζου μεταβληθούν τότε μπορεί να χρειαστεί επανάληψη της παρακέντησης. Οι όζοι μεγάλοι σε μέγεθος (> 3-4 εκ), ακόμα και αν είναι καλοήθεις, ειδικά με συμπιεστικά φαινόμενα στο λαιμό καλό είναι να αντιμετωπίζονται με χειρουργική αφαίρεση.

-Οι όζοι που στην κυτταρολογική εξέταση είναι κακοήθεις ή ύποπτοι για κακοήθεια χρήζουν χειρουργείο. Σε αυτές τις περιπτώσεις καλό είναι να έχει προηγηθεί από έμπειρο ακτινολόγο υπερηχογραφικός έλεγχος των τραχηλικών λεμφαδένων ώστε ο χειρουργός να έχει τις κατάλληλες πληροφορίες προ του χειρουργείου. Σε κάποιες περιπτώσεις, μπορεί να χρειαστεί μετεγχειρητικά θεραπεία με ραδιενεργό ιώδιο ώστε να εξουδετερωθούν τα εναπομείναντα φυσιολογικά αλλά και καρκινικά κύτταρα με στόχο την καλύτερη παρακολούθηση του ασθενούς.

Σημαντικό  είναι να γνωρίζετε ότι ένα μικρό ποσοστό (περίπου 5%) όλων των όζων του θυρεοειδούς είναι κακοήθεις και ότι ο καρκίνος του θυρεοειδούς, στις περισσότερες περιπτώσεις, έχει εξαιρετική πορεία και άριστη επιβίωση.  

Δύο λόγια για την θεραπεία καταστολής με θυροξίνη για την θεραπευτική αντιμετώπιση των όζων με καλοήθη σύσταση και για την αντιμετώπιση των κυστικών όζων. Πλέον, σύμφωνα με τα νεότερα παγκόσμια δεδομένα, δεν συστήνεται η θεραπεία καταστολής με θυροξίνη διότι μεν δεν μειώνει όλους τους όζους δε αν κάποιοι μικρύνουν η μείωση δεν είναι σημαντική για να δικαιολογήσει την χρήση της θεραπείας η οποία μπορεί να αποδειχτεί και επιβλαβής (καρδιακές αρρυθμίες, οστεοπόρωση) ειδικά σε άτομα μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας.  

Οι κυστικοί όζοι, συνήθως καλοήθεις αλλοιώσεις του θυρεοειδικού παρεγχύματος, χρήζουν απλή παρακολούθηση. Όταν όμως είναι μεγάλου μεγέθους και συμπτωματικοί μπορεί σε πρώτη φάση να διενεργηθεί εκκενωτική παρακέντηση. Δυστυχώς τις περισσότερες φορές υποτροπιάζουν (ξαναδημιουργούνται) οπότε η καλύτερη θεραπεία, πλην αντενδείξεων, είναι η χειρουργική τους αφαίρεση.

Πρακτικές συμβουλές για το πώς θα καταφέρεις να χάσεις κιλά

Το αυξημένο σωματικό βάρος προδιαθέτει σε εμφάνιση σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 2. Η μείωση του σωματικού βάρους και η απόκτηση φυσιολογικού βάρους είναι βασικό συστατικό της καλής εξέλιξης του διαβήτη είτε πρόκειται για τύπου 1 είτε για τύπου 2. Σε πολλές περιπτώσεις διαβήτη τύπου 2, η απώλεια 5-10% σωματικού βάρους μπορεί να βελτιώσει τα σάκχαρα, τα λιπίδια και την αρτηριακή πίεση. Σημαντικό είναι να κατανοήσεις ότι στόχος δεν είναι η απότομη μείωση της τροφής έτσι ώστε να επέλθει μείωση του σωματικού βάρους αλλά η ελεγχόμενη μείωση της ποσότητας και η αντικατάσταση των βλαβερών συνηθειών σου από υγιεινές επιλογές έτσι ώστε ουσιαστικά να αλλάξει ο τρόπος ζωής σου όσον αφορά το φαγητό. Η προσεγμένη μείωση της ποσότητας της τροφής σημαίνει και μείωση θερμίδων.

  • Κατανάλωσε καθημερινά περίπου την ίδια ποσότητα θερμίδων.
  • Απόλαυσε το γεύμα σου αργά, πάντα στο τραπέζι, χωρίς να απασχολείσαι παράλληλα με τηλεόραση ή περιοδικά.
  • Φρόντισε να υπάρχει σαλάτα λαχανικών πάντα στο τραπέζι και ξεκίνα το γεύμα σου μ’ αυτήν.
  • Προτίμησε τροφές φτωχές σε λιπαρά, απόφυγε τα τηγανητά και χρησιμοποίησε μικρές ποσότητες ελαιόλαδου.
  • Αν πεινάς πολύ και δεν μπορείς να κρατηθείς μέχρι το επόμενο γεύμα, φάε πράσινη σαλάτα χωρίς λάδι.
  • Πίνε άφθονο νερό. Απόφυγε το αλκοόλ, δίνει πολλές θερμίδες.
  • Προσπάθησε το ψυγείο σου να είναι φτωχικό και άδειο παρά πλούσιο και γεμάτο. Μην αφήνεις ξηρούς καρπούς, μπισκότα και γλυκίσματα γύρω σου.
  • Άφηνε πάντα λίγο φαγητό στο πιάτο σου, βάζε μικρή μερίδα ή χρησιμοποίησε μικρότερο πιάτο.
  • Μην ξεχνάς τη σωματική άσκηση. Να ασκείσαι καθημερινά, π.χ. μια ώρα περπάτημα, κηπουρική κ.τ.λ.
  • Η συχνή επαφή με τον γιατρό ή τον διαιτολόγο σου θα σε βοηθήσει στην προσπάθειά σου.

Ινσουλίνη και Διατροφή

Όταν η ινσουλίνη αποτελεί το βασικό θεραπευτικό μέσο τότε χρειάζεται να είσαι πιο συνεπής στην ποσότητα και το ωράριο των γευμάτων σου. Είναι πολύ σημαντικό να εκπαιδευτείς κατάλληλα, γι’ αυτό πρέπει να απευθυνθείς στη θεραπευτική ομάδα (γιατρό-διαιτολόγο) που σε παρακολουθεί.

ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗΣ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ

Τα άτομα με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη είναι χρήσιμο:

1. Nα τρέφονται υγιεινά
2. Nα έχουν φυσιολογικό βάρος
3. Nα έχουν φυσιολογικά επίπεδα σακχάρου, λιπιδίων αίματος και αρτηριακής πίεσης.

Σωστή επιλογή των κατάλληλων τροφών σε συνδυασμό με συχνή σωματική δραστηριότητα βοηθούν στην επίτευξη των στόχων του ατόμου με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη. Θρεπτικά συστατικά είναι τα συστατικά των τροφών που παρέχουν ενέργεια που μετρούνται σε θερμίδες. Τρεις είναι οι κατηγορίες των θρεπτικών συστατικών: οι υδατάνθρακες, οι πρωτεΐνες και τα λίπη. Η σωστή διατροφή περιλαμβάνει και τις τρεις κατηγορίες θρεπτικών συστατικών.

Υδατάνθρακες

Είναι οι κύριοι υπεύθυνοι για την αύξηση του σακχάρου του αίματος (γλυκόζης) μετά το γεύμα αλλά και η κύρια πηγή ενέργειας του οργανισμού. Συστήνεται να καλύπτουν το 45-65% των ημερήσιων θερμίδων. Η ποσότητα και η ποιότητά τους είναι σημαντικοί παράγοντες. Διακρίνονται σε απλούς και σύνθετους.

  1. Οι απλοί υδατάνθρακες αυξάνουν τα επίπεδα σακχάρου του αίματος άμεσα και δεν παρέχουν άλλα θρεπτικά συστατικά παρά μόνο θερμίδες. Η σουκρόζη (επιτραπέζια ζάχαρη) βρίσκεται στη ζάχαρη που χρησιμοποιούμε στην καθημερινότητά μας, στο μέλι και σε σιρόπια. Η φρουκτόζη που βρίσκεται στα φρούτα προκαλεί μικρότερη αύξηση σακχάρου σε σύγκριση με τη σουκρόζη όπως ισχύει και για τη λακτόζη η οποία υπάρχει στα γαλακτοκομικά προϊόντα.
  2. Οι σύνθετοι υδατάνθρακες διασπώνται στον οργανισμό με πιο αργό ρυθμό σε σύγκριση με τους απλούς και δεν αυξάνουν απότομα το σάκχαρο στο αίμα. Περιέχονται στα φρούτα, τα λαχανικά και τα αμυλούχα προϊόντα ολικής άλεσης που είναι πλούσια σε φυτικές ίνες.

Τα άτομα με διαβήτη θα πρέπει να κατανέμουν τους υδατάνθρακες στα γεύματά τους με βάση την υγιεινή διατροφή, τις καθημερινές ανάγκες τους και τις συστάσεις του γιατρού ή του διαιτολόγου τους. Ειδικά όταν βρίσκονται σε εντατικοποιημένο σχήμα ινσουλίνης χρειάζεται να υπολογίζουν συστηματικά το ποσό των υδατανθράκων που καταναλώνουν σε κάθε γεύμα.

Tι είναι ο Γλυκαιμικός δείκτης;

Πέραν του υπολογισμού της ποσότητας των υδατανθράκων και της ποιότητάς τους στα γεύματα υπάρχει και ένα ακόμα «εργαλείο» που βοηθά στην καλύτερη ρύθμιση των τιμών σακχάρου 2-3 ώρες μετά το γεύμα. Αυτό το «εργαλείο» είναι ο γλυκαιμικός δείκτης που δείχνει πόσο γρήγορα ένα τρόφιμο αυξάνει τα επίπεδα σακχάρου αίματος σε σύγκριση με το λευκό ψωμί ή το σάκχαρο. Συστήνεται η κατανάλωση τροφίμων με μέτριο ή χαμηλό γλυκαιμικό δείκτη. Παρόλα αυτά η κατανάλωση μεγάλης ποσότητας τροφίμου με χαμηλό γλυκαιμικό δείκτη, θα οδηγήσει σε αύξηση του μεταγευματικού σακχάρου. Παράγοντες που επηρεάζουν τον γλυκαιμικό δείκτη των τροφίμων είναι η περιεκτικότητα σε φυτικές ίνες, σε λιπαρά, η ωρίμανση του τροφίμου καθώς και ο τρόπος παρασκευής τους.

Πρωτεΐνες

 

Συστήνεται να καλύπτουν το 15-20% από το σύνολο των ημερήσιων θερμίδων. Η πρωτεΐνη μπορεί να προέρχεται από ζωικές ή φυτικές πηγές. Οι ζωικές πρωτεΐνες περιέχονται στο κρέας, στα πουλερικά, στο ψάρι, στα αβγά, στο γάλα, στο γιαούρτι και στο τυρί και θεωρούνται πρωτεΐνες υψηλής βιολογικής αξίας. Οι φυτικές πρωτεΐνες περιέχονται στα όσπρια, τα δημητριακά, τους ξηρούς καρπούς, τα λαχανικά και θεωρούνται πρωτεΐνες χαμηλής βιολογικής αξίας. Ωστόσο ο συνδυασμός των ζωικών και φυτικών πρωτεϊνών είναι απαραίτητος.

Λίπη

Συστήνεται να καλύπτουν το 25-35% του συνόλου των ημερήσιων θερμίδων. Είναι ιδιαίτερα χρήσιμη η κατανάλωση των μονοακόρεστων λιπαρών οξέων που βρίσκονται στο ελαιόλαδο, στους ξηρούς καρπούς καθώς και στα ω-3 λιπαρά οξέα που βρίσκονται κυρίως στα λιπαρά ψάρια (σολομός, σκουμπρί, σαρδέλα, ρέγκα, κολιός κ.α.). Συστήνεται η περιορισμένη κατανάλωση των κορεσμένων λιπαρών οξέων που βρίσκονται στα κρέατα, αλλαντικά κ.α. και των trans λιπαρών που βρίσκονται στις μαργαρίνες και τα τηγανητά τρόφιμα. Προτιμάτε την κατανάλωση ψαριών και άσπρου κρέατος (κοτόπουλο, γαλοπούλα) αντί κόκκινου κρέατος (μοσχάρι, χοιρινό, αρνί) και ελαιόλαδου αντί βουτύρου και μαργαρίνης.

Βιταμίνες και ιχνοστοιχεία

Οι ποσότητες βιταμινών και ιχνοστοιχείων που συστήνονται για τα άτομα με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη δεν διαφέρουν από αυτές που συστήνονται σε όλα τα άτομα είτε έχουν σακχαρώδη διαβήτη είτε όχι. Συμπληρώματα βιταμινών και ιχνοστοιχείων θα πρέπει να λαμβάνονται μόνο μετά τη σύμφωνη γνώμη του ιατρού. Συνήθως οι απαραίτητες ποσότητες βιταμινών και ιχνοστοιχείων καλύπτονται μέσα από μία ισορροπημένη διατροφή και έτσι δεν είναι απαραίτητη η επιπλέον φαρμακευτική χορήγηση βιταμινών και ιχνοστοιχείων.

Τι πρέπει να ξέρουμε για το Οινόπνευμα

Σε ό,τι αφορά το οινόπνευμα θα πρέπει να υπάρχει συνεννόηση με τον θεράποντα ιατρό ή τον διαιτολόγο σου ο οποίος μπορεί να καθορίσει τα όρια χρήσης του αλκοόλ ανάλογα με την περίπτωσή σου. Η ημερήσια κατανάλωση οινοπνεύματος (αλκοόλ) καλό είναι να αποφεύγεται ή να μην ξεπερνά το ένα ποτήρι αλκοόλ στις γυναίκες και μέχρι δύο ποτήρια στους άνδρες. Από έρευνες που έχουν γίνει, διαπιστώθηκε ότι η περιστασιακή χρήση (1-3 ποτά την εβδομάδα) αλκοόλ δεν βλάπτει τα άτομα με διαβήτη, μεγαλύτερη και συχνότερη όμως χρήση έχει βλαπτικά αποτελέσματα καθώς το αλκοόλ περιέχει πολλές θερμίδες, ενώ ορισμένα ηδύποτα (λικέρ) περιέχουν και πολλή ζάχαρη. Εξαιτίας των ιδιοτήτων του αλκοόλ να επιδρά με ορισμένα αντιδιαβητικά δισκία και να μειώνει την παραγωγή γλυκόζης από το ήπαρ, καλό είναι να καταναλώνεται πάντα με γεμάτο στομάχι, σε διαφορετική περίπτωση μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε σοβαρή υπογλυκαιμία. Η επίδραση του αλκοόλ μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε υπογλυκαιμία ακόμα και 24 ώρες μετά την κατανάλωσή του. Καλό είναι τα επίπεδα σακχάρου να είναι μεταξύ 100-140 mg/dL. Αν είναι χαμηλότερα θα πρέπει να καταναλώσεις κάποιο σνακ έτσι ώστε να αυξηθεί το σάκχαρο του αίματος και μετά να καταναλωθεί το αλκοόλ. Η μακροχρόνια αλόγιστη χρήση μπορεί να επιδεινώσει τη νευροπάθεια που προκαλεί ο διαβήτης, αλλά και να συμβάλει στην ανάπτυξη υπέρτασης, παχυσαρκίας και αύξηση των τριγλυκεριδίων.

 

Ταχυφαγεία (Fast Food)

 

Τα προϊόντα fast food είναι πλούσια σε θερμίδες, λίπος και αλάτι. Μεγάλη ποσότητα του προσλαμβανόμενου λίπους αποτελείται από trans-λιπαρά οξέα. Η συχνή κατανάλωση αυτών των λιπαρών έχει συσχετιστεί με καρδιαγγειακά νοσήματα. Όταν λοιπόν καταναλώνεις τρόφιμα fast food πρέπει να γνωρίζεις ότι λαμβάνεις μεγάλη ποσότητα αλατιού και λίπους η οποία έχει ως αποτέλεσμα αύξηση σωματικού βάρους.

Γλυκαντικές ύλες

 

Αντικαθιστούν τη ζάχαρη σε τρόφιμα και ποτά. Διακρίνονται στα φυσικά υποκατάστατα ζάχαρης και στα τεχνητά υποκατάστατα ζάχαρης.

α) Τα φυσικά υποκατάστατα είναι η φρουκτόζη, η σορβιτόλη (Ε420), η μανιτόλη (Ε421), η ξυλιτόλη (Ε967), η ισομαλτόζη (Ε953), η λακτιτόλη (Ε966) και η ισομαλτιτόλη (Ε953). Οι ουσίες αυτές αποδίδουν 2-4 θερμίδες ανά γραμμάριο αλλά έχουν πιο γλυκιά γεύση από τη ζάχαρη και γι’ αυτό μπορούν να χρησιμοποιηθούν σε μικρότερη ποσότητα.

β) Τα τεχνητά υποκατάστατα είναι η ακεσουλφάμη-Κ ή ακεσουλφαμικό κάλιο (Ε950), η ασπαρτάμη (Ε951), το κυκλαμικό οξύ (Ε952), η σακχαρίνη (Ε954), η σουκραλόζη (Ε955), η νεοτάμη (Ε961) και πρόσφατα προστέθηκε και το γλυκαντικό από το φυτό στέβια (Ε960). Όλες οι τεχνητές γλυκαντικές ύλες δεν μεταβολίζονται από το ανθρώπινο σώμα και απεκκρίνονται ακέραιες εκτός από την ασπαρτάμη. Γι’ αυτόν τον λόγο δεν αποδίδουν ενέργεια (μηδενικές θερμίδες). Η ασπαρτάμη, αν και μεταβολίζεται, επειδή χρησιμοποιείται σε πολύ μικρές ποσότητες εξαιτίας της έντονης γλυκιάς γεύσης της, ουσιαστικά δεν έχει θερμίδες.

Οι συγκεκριμένες ουσίες δεν επηρεάζουν τα επίπεδα σακχάρου και ινσουλίνης στο αίμα, γι’ αυτό είναι ιδανικές για τα άτομα με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη. Επιπλέον, είναι ανθεκτικές σε υψηλές θερμοκρασίες και μπορείς να τις χρησιμοποιήσεις στο μαγείρεμα, με εξαίρεση την ασπαρτάμη. Όλες οι γλυκαντικές ουσίες έχουν πάρει έγκριση από την Ευρωπαϊκή Αρχή Ασφάλειας Τροφίμων και η αποδεκτή ημερήσια πρόσληψη, που έχει καθιερωθεί, είναι υψηλότερη από αυτή που μπορεί να καταναλώσει ο άνθρωπος μακροχρόνια. Οι τεχνητές γλυκαντικές ουσίες, αν και δεν αποδίδουν σχεδόν καθόλου ενέργεια, όταν χρησιμοποιούνται ως επιτραπέζια γλυκαντικά για να μοιάζουν με τη ζάχαρη προσθέτονται στη σύστασή τους ουσίες (π.χ. δεξτρόζη και μαλτοδεξτρίνη) οι οποίες έχουν θερμίδες και υδατάνθρακες. Έτσι, όταν ένα επιτραπέζιο γλυκαντικό αναγράφει τον ισχυρισμό «χωρίς θερμίδες», ουσιαστικά σημαίνει ότι αποδίδει ενέργεια ίση ή λιγότερη από 5 θερμίδες ανά μερίδα. Έτσι για να μην επηρεαστούν τα επίπεδα σακχάρου, καλό είναι η κατανάλωση αυτών των προϊόντων να γίνεται με μέτρο. Γενικά, όταν καταναλώνεις ένα προϊόν που αναγράφει έναν από τους ισχυρισμούς «χωρίς ζάχαρη», ή «χωρίς προσθήκη ζάχαρης», ή «με λιγότερη ζάχαρη» εφάρμοσε τον χρυσό κανόνα «ελέγχω πάντα τη διατροφική ετικέτα για τη συνολική ποσότητα υδατανθράκων».

ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗΣ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΣΩΜΑΤΙΚΗ ΑΣΚΗΣΗ

Η άσκηση γενικά:

  • Βελτιώνει τη δράση της ινσουλίνης
  • Μειώνει («καίει») το πλεονάζον λίπος και βοηθάει στον έλεγχο του σωματικού βάρους
  • Βελτιώνει τη μυϊκή αντοχή
  • Βελτιώνει την οστική πυκνότητα και αντοχή
  • Μειώνει την αρτηριακή πίεση
  • Προστατεύει την καρδιά και τα αγγεία αυξάνοντας την «καλή» και μειώνοντας την «κακή» χοληστερίνη
  • Βελτιώνει την κυκλοφορία του αίματος και μειώνει τον κίνδυνο καρδιαγγειακής νόσου
  • Αυξάνει το επίπεδο ενέργειας
  • Βοηθάει στη χαλάρωση και στη μείωση του άγχους

Η άσκηση είναι απαραίτητο συστατικό της θεραπείας του διαβήτη τύπου 2. Όχι μόνο βοηθάει στον έλεγχο του σακχάρου αλλά βελτιώνει τη φυσική κατάσταση και μειώνει τον κίνδυνο καρδιαγγειακής νόσου.

Ποια είδη άσκησης είναι καλύτερα για άτομα με διαβήτη

Κάθε δραστηριότητα που αυξάνει τον καρδιακό σου ρυθμό και τον διατηρεί σε υψηλά επίπεδα για ένα χρονικό διάστημα βελτιώνει την αεροβική σου ικανότητα. Η αεροβική άσκηση βοηθάει στην πρόληψη του διαβήτη τύπου 2 και στην καλύτερη ρύθμιση του σακχάρου σε άτομα με διαβήτη, γενικώς. Εκτός από αυτά όμως βελτιώνει τη διάθεση και είναι διασκεδαστική. Δύσκολα αισθάνεται κανείς άγχος όταν κάνει διάδρομο ή όταν κολυμπάει. Σύμφωνα με τα τελευταία ερευνητικά δεδομένα οι ασκήσεις αντίστασης όπως οι ασκήσεις με βάρη βοηθούν επίσης σημαντικά στη ρύθμιση του σακχάρου. Έχουν ως αποτέλεσμα παρόμοιες μειώσεις στα επίπεδα του σακχάρου με αυτές που προκαλούν τα αντιδιαβητικά δισκία. Επιπρόσθετα, βελτιώνουν τη μυϊκή δύναμη και μάζα, μειώνουν το λίπος, βελτιώνουν τη διάθεση και την αυτοπεποίθηση.

ΚΑΛΟ ΕΙΝΑΙ να ασκείσαι τρεις με τέσσερις φορές την εβδομάδα για περίπου 30 λεπτά κάθε φορά. Ιδανικά να ασκείσαι κάθε μέρα. Ένα καλό πρόγραμμα άσκησης περιλαμβάνει 5 με 10 λεπτά προθέρμανση, τουλάχιστον 15 με 30 λεπτά συνεχή αερόβια άσκηση (γρήγορο περπάτημα ή ποδηλασία) και 5 λεπτά χαλάρωση στο τέλος. Πρόσθεσε σε αυτό το πρόγραμμα ασκήσεις μυϊκής ενδυνάμωσης ή αντίστασης 2 με 3 φορές την εβδομάδα

 

Ωστόσο χρειάζεται προσοχή! Θυμήσου να μετράς και να καταγράφεις το σάκχαρο πριν, κατά τη διάρκεια και μετά την άσκηση. Αυτή η καταγραφή θα αποκαλύψει πώς ανταποκρίνεται το σώμα σου στην άσκηση και θα βοηθήσει να αποφύγεις επικίνδυνες διακυμάνσεις του σακχάρου. Η άσκηση επιδρά με τον ίδιο τρόπο σε άτομα με ή χωρίς σακχαρώδη διαβήτη. Κάτω από φυσιολογικές συνθήκες η ινσουλίνη εκκρίνεται από το πάγκρεας όταν τα επίπεδα σακχάρου στο αίμα αυξάνονται, όπως για παράδειγμα μετά το φαγητό. Η ινσουλίνη είναι απαραίτητη για τη χρησιμοποίηση του σακχάρου από το ήπαρ και τους μυς. Αυτό έχει ως αποτέλεσμα να ελαττώνονται τα επίπεδα σακχάρου στο αίμα. Κατά τη διάρκεια της άσκησης το σώμα χρειάζεται πρόσθετη ενέργεια/ καύσιμο με τη μορφή σακχάρου για τους ασκούμενους μυς. Κατά την άσκηση σύντομης διάρκειας, όπως ένα γρήγορο τρέξιμο για να προλάβεις το λεωφορείο, οι μυς και το ήπαρ απελευθερώνουν σάκχαρο από τις αποθήκες τους για να χρησιμοποιηθεί ως καύσιμο. Αν η άσκηση συνεχιστεί σε μέτρια ένταση ωστόσο, οι μυς προσλαμβάνουν σάκχαρο με έναν ρυθμό 20 φορές μεγαλύτερο από αυτόν που προσλαμβάνουν σε ηρεμία. Άρα τα επίπεδα σακχάρου ελαττώνονται. Στα άτομα που δεν χρησιμοποιούν ινσουλίνη ή αντιδιαβητικά δισκία, τα επίπεδα ινσουλίνης ελαττώνονται και έτσι μειώνεται ο κίνδυνος υπογλυκαιμίας. Επίσης στα άτομα με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη η έντονη άσκηση ΜΠΟΡΕΙ παροδικά και να αυξήσει τα επίπεδα σακχάρου. Αν έχεις διαβήτη πρέπει οπωσδήποτε να ελέγχεις το σάκχαρό σου μετά την άσκηση για να αντιληφθείς αν αυτό συμβαίνει και σε εσένα.

Πριν την άσκηση: μέτρα το σάκχαρό σου

Πριν ξεκινήσεις ένα πρόγραμμα άσκησης πρέπει οπωσδήποτε να έχεις την έγκριση του γιατρού σου, ειδικά αν η φυσική σου δραστηριότητα προηγουμένως ήταν περιορισμένη. Συζητήστε με τον γιατρό σας ποιες δραστηριότητες είναι οι καταλληλότερες και τις ώρες που σκοπεύεις να ασκηθείς αλλά και την πιθανή τροποποίηση της φαρμακευτικής σου αγωγής. Αν χρησιμοποιείς ινσουλίνη ή φάρμακα που μπορεί να προκαλέσουν υπογλυκαιμία μέτρα το σάκχαρό σου 30 λεπτά πριν την άσκηση και αμέσως πριν την άσκηση. Αυτό θα σε βοηθήσει να καταλάβεις αν τα επίπεδα σακχάρου είναι σταθερά, αυξάνονται ή μειώνονται και αν η άσκηση είναι ασφαλής.

Αναγνώρισε συμπτώματα υπογλυκαιμίας

Κατά τη διάρκεια της άσκησης πρέπει να αποφύγεις την υπογλυκαιμία. Αν η άσκηση είναι παρατεταμένη, μέτρα το σάκχαρό σου κάθε 30 λεπτά, ειδικά αν ξεκινάς ένα καινούριο πρόγραμμα άσκησης ή αν μεταβάλλεις την ένταση ή τη διάρκεια του προγράμματος. Αυτό μερικές φορές είναι δύσκολο όταν η άσκηση γίνεται στην ύπαιθρο ή συμμετέχεις σε οργανωμένα σπορ. Ωστόσο είναι απαραίτητο τουλάχιστον μέχρι να αντιληφθείς πως το σώμα σου ανταποκρίνεται στις αλλαγές ενός προγράμματος άσκησης.

 

Σταμάτα την άσκηση αν:

-Το σάκχαρο είναι κάτω από 70 mg/dL

-Αισθάνεσαι τρόμο, νευρικότητα ή σύγχυση

-Φάε ή πιες κάτι για να ανέβουν τα επίπεδα σακχάρου (15-20 gr υδατανθάρκων), όπως: Δύο έως πέντε ταμπλέτες γλυκόζης, μισό ποτήρι (125 ml) χυμό, μισό ποτήρι ανθρακούχο ποτό με ζάχαρη, Πέντε ή έξι καραμέλες με ζάχαρη

-Μέτρα πάλι το σάκχαρο σε 15 λεπτά. Αν ακόμα είναι χαμηλό, κατανάλωσε άλλη μια φορά το ίδιο τρόφιμο ή ποτό με ζάχαρη και ξαναμέτρα σε 15 λεπτά. Πρέπει να επαναλάβεις όσες φορές χρειαστεί μέχρι το σάκχαρο να επανέλθει στα 70 mg/dL. Μπορείς να συνεχίσεις την άσκηση μόνο όταν το σάκχαρο είναι σε ασφαλή όρια.

Μετά την άσκηση: Μέτρα το σάκχαρό σου πάλι

Μέτρα το σάκχαρό σου αμέσως μετά την άσκηση και αρκετές φορές κατά τη διάρκεια των επόμενων ωρών. Η άσκηση έχει εξαντλήσει τις αποθήκες γλυκόζης στους μυς και στο ήπαρ. Καθώς το σώμα σου ξαναγεμίζει αυτές τις αποθήκες παίρνει το σάκχαρο από το αίμα. Όσο πιο έντονη είναι η άσκηση τόσο πιο μεγάλη θα είναι η επίδραση στα επίπεδα σακχάρου. Υπογλυκαιμία ΜΠΟΡΕΙ να συμβεί ακόμα και ΠΟΛΛΕΣ ΩΡΕΣ μετά την άσκηση.

Συμβουλές άσκησης

-Για να μειώσεις τον κίνδυνο υπογλυκαιμίας αν έχεις διαβήτη ακολούθησε ένα σταθερό πρόγραμμα άσκησης και προγραμμάτισε τα γεύματα και τη λήψη των φαρμάκων σου την ίδια ώρα κάθε μέρα

-Παρατεταμένη ή πολύ έντονη άσκηση μπορεί να προκαλέσει την παραγωγή αδρεναλίνης και άλλων ορμονών που ανταγωνίζονται τη δράση της ινσουλίνης και μπορεί να αυξήσει τα επίπεδα σακχάρου. Αν συμμετέχεις σε πολύ έντονη άσκηση ή σε παρατεταμένη άσκηση (που διαρκεί αρκετές ώρες) ίσως χρειαστεί τροποποίηση στο σχήμα ινσουλίνης/αντιδιαβητικών δισκίων που χρησιμοποιείς ή και στη δια  τροφή σου. Συζήτησέ το με το γιατρό σου

-Προσοχή όταν κάνεις άσκηση τις ώρες που τα φάρμακά σου έχουν τη μεγαλύτερη δράση. Ανάλογα με την ώρα της άσκησης, ίσως χρειαστεί μείωση της δόσης της βασικής ή γευματικής ινσουλίνης. Ο γιατρός σου θα σου δώσει τις κατάλληλες οδηγίες.

-Καλύτερα να ασκείσαι μαζί με κάποιον που γνωρίζει ότι έχεις διαβήτη και ξέρει τι να κάνει σε περίπτωση υπογλυκαιμίας.

-Είναι χρήσιμο να έχεις μαζί σου μια ταυτότητα που να αναγράφει την πάθηση και τα φάρμακά σου.

– Μέτρα το σάκχαρο πριν, κατά τη διάρκεια και μετά την άσκηση και πάντα έχεις μαζί σου ένα σνακ με υδατάνθρακες (φρούτο, χυμός) για την περίπτωση υπογλυκαιμίας.

-Συζήτησε με τον γιατρό σου ποιος είναι ο κατάλληλος τύπος άσκησης για εσένα. Κάποιες επιπλοκές του διαβήτη, όπως προχωρημένη αμφιβληστροειδοπάθεια ή νευροπάθεια, μπορεί να κάνουν κάποιες ασκήσεις επικίνδυνες. Ο γιατρός σου θα προγραμματίσει μια εξέταση για να εκτιμήσει την ανταπόκριση της καρδιάς σου στην άσκηση.

-Μην ξεκινάς την άσκηση αν έχεις διαβήτη τύπου 1 και το σάκχαρό σου είναι πάνω από 250 mg/dL και έχεις θετικές κετόνες στο αίμα γιατί μάλλον έχεις έλλειψη ινσουλίνης και η άσκηση θα αυξήσει ακόμα περισσότερο τα επίπεδα σακχάρου. Πάρε υγρά, προσάρμοσε τη δόση της ινσουλίνης και επικοινώνησε με τον γιατρό σου.

-Ξεκίνα αργά και σταδιακά, αύξησε την ένταση και τη διάρκεια. Επέλεξε μια δραστηριότητα που σε διασκεδάζει. Αν περνάς καλά όταν ασκείσαι η άσκηση θα γίνει τρόπος ζωής. Αν έχεις παραπανίσια κιλά μια καλή ιδέα είναι η γυμναστική στο νερό. Άλλες επιλογές είναι η ποδηλασία ή το κολύμπι. Να φοράς άνετα παπούτσια και να προσέχετε τα πόδια σας. Να πίνεις νερό πριν, κατά τη διάρκεια και μετά την άσκηση για να αποφύγεις την αφυδάτωση. Μην αγνοείς τον πόνο! Σταμάτα την άσκηση αν νιώσεις αδικαιολόγητο πόνο στους μυς και στις αρθρώσεις.

Η σωστή διατροφή και η τακτική άσκηση σε συνδυασμό με την φαρμακευτική αγωγή είναι τα καλύτερα μέσα για να επιτευχθεί η άριστη ρύθμιση του σακχάρου καθώς και να αποφευχθούν οι χρόνιες επιπλοκές του διαβήτη.

ΥΠΕΡΘΥΡΕΟΕΙΔΙΣΜΟΣ

Ο υπερθυρεοειδισμός συμβαίνει όταν ο θυρεοειδής μας λειτουργεί περισσότερο απ’ ότι θα έπρεπε, εκκρίνοντας υπερβολικές ποσότητες ορμονών. Αυτό επιφέρει αύξηση του μεταβολισμού και εμφάνιση διάφορων συμπτωμάτων που ανάλογα με την βαρύτητα της κατάστασης μπορεί να γίνουν λιγότερο ή περισσότερο αντιληπτά από τον ασθενή.

Τι είναι όμως ο θυρεοειδής αδένας;  

Ο θυρεοειδής βρίσκεται στην μπροστινή επιφάνεια του τραχήλου (λαιμού), έχει το σχήμα πεταλούδας και πολλές φορές γίνεται ορατός κατά την διάρκεια της κατάποσης (τον βλέπουμε να ανεβοκατεβαίνει). Παράγει ορμόνες, τριιωδοθυρονίνη (Τ3) και θυροξίνη (Τ4) οι οποίες διαχειρίζονται επί το πλείστον την ενέργεια που χρησιμοποιεί και αποθηκεύει ο οργανισμός μας, με λίγα λόγια τον μεταβολισμό μας. Ο θυρεοειδής όμως ελέγχεται από έναν αδένα που βρίσκεται στον εγκέφαλο, την υπόφυση, η οποία παράγοντας θυροτροπίνη (TSH) διεγείρει την έκκριση των θυρεοειδικών ορμονών (Τ4,Τ3).  Αυτοί οι δύο αδένες βρίσκονται συνεχώς σε στενή συνεργασία και οποιαδήποτε λειτουργική διαταραχή του θυρεοειδούς επηρεάζει αντιστρόφως ανάλογα την έκκριση της TSH.

Ποια  είναι τα αίτια του Υπερθυρεοειδισμού;

  1. Νόσος του Graves. Είναι η πιο συχνή αιτία υπερλειτουργίας του θυρεοειδούς ιδιαίτερα στο γυναικείο φύλο και κατά την διάρκεια της αναπαραγωγικής ηλικίας (20-40 χρόνων). Μπορεί όμως να εμφανιστεί σε οποιαδήποτε ηλικία στους άνδρες και στις γυναίκες. Ως αυτοάνοσο νόσημα, δηλαδή το ανοσοποιητικό μας σύστημα παράγει ένα αντίσωμα που διεγείρει τον θυρεοειδή μας, μπορεί να συνυπάρχει με άλλα αυτοάνοσα νοσήματα στον ίδιο ασθενή (Νόσο του Crohn, ρευματοειδή αρθρίτιδα, κοιλιοκάκη, σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 1  κλπ). Επίσης, όπως γενικά συμβαίνει στις αυτοάνοσες παθήσεις, υπάρχει οικογενειακή προδιάθεση. Μερικοί ασθενείς μπορεί να παρουσιάσουν πρόβλημα στα μάτια (θυρεοειδική οφθαλμοπάθεια ή οφθαλμοπάθεια Graves) με εξόφθαλμο, ξηροφθαλμία, οίδημα, διπλωπία μέχρι και απώλεια της όρασης στις σοβαρότερες μορφές. Ένας από τους παράγοντες κινδύνου εμφάνισης και επιδείνωσης της οφθαλμοπάθειας θεωρείται το κάπνισμα.
  2. Ένας ή περισσότεροι όζοι του θυρεοειδούς που μπορούν με τα χρόνια να αυτονομηθούν,  παράγοντας περισσότερες θυρεοειδικές ορμόνες και επομένως να προκαλέσουν υπερθυρεοειδισμό. Είναι αυτό που εμείς οι Ενδοκρινολόγοι αποκαλούμε τοξικό αδένωμα ή τοξική πολυοζώδη βρογχοκήλη και που στο σπινθηρογράφημα απεικονίζονται ως θερμοί όζοι.
  3. Στην περίπτωση που ο υπερθυρεοειδισμός οφείλεται σε φλεγμονή και καταστροφή του παρεγχύματος είτε αυτοάνοσης αιτιολογίας  (θυρεοειδίτιδα μετά τον τοκετό) είτε πιθανούς ιογενούς αιτιολογίας, συνήθως μετά από ίωση του άπω αναπνευστικού συστήματος (υποξία θυρεοειδίτιδα).
  4. Φάρμακα: αμιοδαρόνη, ιντερφερόνη, λίθιο
  5. Υπερβολικές δόσεις θυροξίνης

 

Ποια είναι τα συμπτώματα του Υπερθυρεοειδισμού;

 

  1. Απώλεια βάρους με κανονική ή αυξημένη όρεξη
  2. Ταχυκαρδία μέχρι και καρδιακή αρρυθμία
  3. Διαρροικές κενώσεις
  4. Άγχος, εκνευρισμός, δυσκολία στον ύπνο
  5. Τρόμος στα χέρια, εφίδρωση, δυσανεξία στην ζέστη
  6. Κούραση, αδυναμία
  7. Διαταραχές έμμηνου ρύσης

 

Διάγνωση

Η διάγνωση γίνεται με εξετάσεις αίματος : TSH, Ft4, T3 (Ft3) και απεικονιστικό έλεγχο με σπινθηρογράφημα. Μπορεί να χρειαστεί επιπλέον η μέτρηση των αντισωμάτων (TSI, anti-TPO & anti-TG) και υπερηχογράφημα θυρεοειδούς με triplex για τον έλεγχο της ενδοθυρεοειδικής αγγείωσης.

Θεραπεία

Τρεις είναι οι επιλογές

  1. Αντιθυρεοειδικά φάρμακα
  2. Ραδιενεργό ιώδιο
  3. Χειρουργική επέμβαση

Η ηλικία, η σοβαρότητα, η αιτία του υπερθυρεοειδισμού αλλά και η προτίμηση του ασθενούς παίζουν ρόλο στην επιλογή της κατάλληλης θεραπείας.

Φαρμακευτική αγωγή

Δύο είναι οι κατηγορίες φαρμάκων που χρησιμοποιούνται στην θεραπεία του υπερθυρεοειδισμού.

Τα αντιθυρεοεικά όπως μεθιμαζόλη (unimazole), καρβιμαζόλη (Thyrostat) και προπυλοθειουρακίλη (prothuril) τα οποία μειώνουν την παραγωγή των θυρεοειδικών ορμονών. Συνήθως προτιμούμε τα δύο πρώτα λόγω λιγότερων ανεπιθύμητων ενεργειών με μόνη εξαίρεση το πρώτο τρίμηνο της εγκυμοσύνης που χορηγούμε προπυλοθειουρακίλη.

Τα αντιθυρεοειδικά φάρμακα χορηγούνται: α) για ένα μικρό διάστημα με στόχο να καταστήσουν  τον ασθενή ευθυρεοειδικό πριν από το χειρουργείο ή το ραδιενεργό ιώδιο (συνήθως στην δεύτερη περίπτωση τα φάρμακα διακόπτονται μερικές μέρες πριν την λήψη ιωδίου για να αυξηθεί η πρόσληψη του ραδιοφαρμάκου και να γίνει εφικτή η καταστροφή τους θυρεοειδούς).   β) για μεγαλύτερο διάστημα (1-2 χρόνια) όπως στην Νόσο Graves με σκοπό να επιτύχουμε την ίαση (συνήθως 30% μέχρι και 50-60% των ασθενών στις ηπιότερες μορφές της νόσου). Μετά την διακοπή μπορεί να υπάρξει υποτροπή ακόμα και έπειτα από χρόνια, οπότε τις περισσότερες φορές θα χρειαστεί να προβούμε σε μια από τις δύο μόνιμες θεραπείες, θυρεοειδεκτομή ή ραδιενεργό ιώδιο. Όλα τα αντιθυρεοειδικά φάρμακα μπορούν να προκαλέσουν παρενέργειες για τις οποίες θα πρέπει να σας ενημερώσει ο ιατρός σας και περιοδικά να ελέγχει κάποιους βιοχημικούς δείκτες. Κατά την διάρκεια της αντιθυρεοειδικής αγωγής ο έλεγχος της θυρεοειδικής λειτουργίας πρέπει να γίνεται, τουλάχιστον αρχικά κάθε 1-2 μήνες.

Οι βήτα- αποκλειστές (κυρίως προπανολόλη) είναι η δεύτερη κατηγορία φαρμάκων και χορηγούνται με στόχο την καταπράυνση των συμπτωμάτων (ταχυκαρδίες, τρόμος, εκνευρισμός) μειώνοντας σταδιακά την δόση μέχρι να επιτευχθεί ο έλεγχος του υπερθυρεοειδισμού.

Ραδιενεργό Ιώδιο

Το ραδιενεργό ιώδιο χορηγείται σε υγρή μορφή ή σε κάψουλα και αποσκοπεί στην καταστροφή του θυρεοειδικού παρεγχύματος, συνήθως εντός 6-18 εβδομάδων. Σε άτομα με σοβαρά συμπτώματα, μεγαλύτερης ηλικίας και σε εκείνα με καρδιολογικά προβλήματα θα πρέπει να προηγείται, όπως προαναφέρθηκε, ένα διάστημα αντιθυρεοειδικής αγωγής η οποία διακόπτεται λίγες μέρες πριν την θεραπεία. Οι περισσότεροι ασθενείς μετά το ραδιενεργό ιώδιο γίνονται υποθυρεοειδικοί και πρέπει να λαμβάνουν εφόρου ζωής θεραπεία υποκατάστασης με θυροξίνη. Από την άλλη, 10-20% των ασθενών μπορεί χρειαστούν και δεύτερη δόση για να θεραπευθούν, συνήθως είναι εκείνοι με σοβαρότερο υπερθυρεοειδισμό και αδένα μεγάλων διαστάσεων. Μερικοί ασθενείς με Νόσο Graves μπορεί να παρουσιάσουν επιδείνωση της οφθαλμοπάθειας μετά το ραδιενεργό ιώδιο, κυρίως οι καπνιστές. Οι ασθενείς που υποβάλλονται σε θεραπευτικό ιώδιο θα πρέπει να αποφεύγουν την κοντινή επαφή με παιδιά και εγκύους για 3 με 7 μέρες μετά την θεραπεία. Η εγκυμοσύνη και ο θηλασμός αποτελούν απόλυτη αντένδειξη για τη λήψη ιωδίου, ενώ οι γυναίκες σε αναπαραγωγική ηλικία καλό είναι να καθυστερήσουν τυχόν εγκυμοσύνη τουλάχιστον 6 μήνες (προτιμάται περισσότερο) μετά το ραδιενεργό ιώδιο.

Χειρουργική επέμβαση θυρεοειδεκτομής

Προτείνεται ως πρώτη επιλογή

  • ‘Όταν πρόκειται για ευμεγέθη βρογχοκήλη (θυρεοειδής αυξημένων διαστάσεων) με συμπιεστικά φαινόμενα στον τράχηλο
  • Μη δυνατότητα χορήγησης αντιθυρεοειδικής αγωγής λόγω σοβαρών παρενεργειών
  • Παρουσία όζου, ύποπτου για κακοήθεια.
  • Προτίμηση του ασθενούς

Τον πρώτο καιρό μετά το χειρουργείο ο ασθενής χρήζει τακτική παρακολούθηση της θυρεοειδικής λειτουργίας και του ασβεστίου στο αίμα. Όταν επιτευχθεί άριστη ρύθμιση η παρακολούθηση γίνεται 1-2 φορές το χρόνο. Καλό είναι να γνωρίζουν οι ασθενείς ότι συνήθως η χειρουργική επέμβαση καθιστά αναγκαία την θεραπεία υποκατάστασης με θυροξίνη εφόρου ζωής.

ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗΣ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗΣ

ΤΙ ΕΙΝΑΙ Ο ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗΣ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗΣ

Ο όρος «σακχαρώδης διαβήτης» αναφέρεται σε μια διαταραχή του μεταβολισμού που χαρακτηρίζεται από αύξηση του σακχάρου (γλυκόζης) στο αίμα, δηλαδή υπεργλυκαιμία, και οφείλεται σε απόλυτη ή σχετική έλλειψη ινσουλίνης ή/και μειονεκτική δράση της.

Για να καταλάβουμε καλύτερα πώς εμφανίζεται ο σακχαρώδης διαβήτης πρέπει να δούμε τι συμβαίνει στον οργανισμό μας κάθε φορά που τρώμε. Μεγάλο μέρος από το φαγητό που τρώμε, διασπάται στο στομάχι και στο έντερο σε σάκχαρο το οποίο στη συνέχεια απορροφάται και κυκλοφορεί στο αίμα. Όταν αυξάνεται το σάκχαρο στο αίμα, το πάγκρεας που βρίσκεται πίσω από το στομάχι, απελευθερώνει μια ουσία που ονομάζεται ινσουλίνη. Η ινσουλίνη είναι άκρως απαραίτητη προκειμένου να μπορέσει το σάκχαρο που είναι η βασικότερη τροφή των κυττάρων μας να μπει μέσα σε αυτά. Αν ο οργανισμός μας δεν μπορεί να απελευθερώσει την απαραίτητη ποσότητα ινσουλίνης ή αν η ινσουλίνη που παράγουμε δεν μπορεί να συνεργαστεί σωστά με τα κύτταρά μας, τότε το σάκχαρο δεν μπορεί να περάσει όλο μέσα σε αυτά και συσσωρεύεται στο αίμα. Αυτή η κατάσταση ονομάζεται σακχαρώδης διαβήτης. Εκτός όμως από το σάκχαρο που προέρχεται απευθείας από την απορρόφηση της τροφής, σάκχαρο παράγει και το ήπαρ (συκώτι) με μια διαδικασία που ρυθμίζεται από την ινσουλίνη. Όταν λοιπόν δεν υπάρχει αρκετή ινσουλίνη τότε δεν ελέγχεται σωστά η παραγωγή σακχάρου από το ήπαρ με αποτέλεσμα την επιδείνωση της υπεργλυκαιμίας (ιδίως της πρωινής).

ΤΑΞΙΝΟΜΗΣΗ ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗ

Οι κυριότεροι τύποι σακχαρώδη διαβήτη είναι οι εξής δύο:

Σακχαρώδης διαβήτης τύπου 1: Οφείλεται σε πλήρη αδυναμία του παγκρέατος να παραγάγει ινσουλίνη εξαιτίας της καταστροφής των ειδικών κυττάρων που την παράγουν λόγω ανοσολογικού μηχανισμού. Στην πλειονότητα των περιπτώσεων η διάγνωση γίνεται πριν την ηλικία των 30 ετών, ωστόσο μπορεί να εμφανιστεί και σε μεγαλύτερες ηλικίες. Σε αυτήν την περίπτωση ο ασθενής είναι απαραίτητο να κάνει ινσουλίνη για να επιβιώσει. Η γενετική προδιάθεση αφενός και η επίδραση ορισμένων περιβαλλοντικών παραγόντων (π.χ. ιώσεις) αφετέρου μπορεί να προκαλέσουν ΣΔ τύπου 1. Ωστόσο δεν είναι εντελώς ξεκάθαρος ο αιτιολογικός ρόλος των παραγόντων αυτών.

Σακχαρώδης διαβήτης τύπου 2: Είναι πιο συχνός στους ενήλικες και για αυτό παλαιότερα ονομαζόταν «σακχαρώδης διαβήτης των ενηλίκων». Τα τελευταία χρόνια εμφανίζεται και σε νεότερες ηλικίες ακόμα και σε παιδιά. Οφείλεται σε μειονεκτική δράση της ινσουλίνης και σε αδυναμία του παγκρέατος να παραγάγει την απαιτούμενη ποσότητα ινσουλίνης για να διατηρηθεί το σάκχαρο σε φυσιολογικά επίπεδα. Προδιαθεσικοί παράγοντες είναι ο ισχυρός παράγων της κληρονομικότητας χωρίς ωστόσο να σημαίνει απαραίτητα ότι τα παιδιά γονέων με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 2 θα νοσήσουν από αυτήν την πάθηση. Οι πιθανότητες αυξάνουν κατά πολύ όταν και οι δύο γονείς πάσχουν, όταν υπάρχει καθιστική ζωή και έλλειψη σωματικής άσκησης, παχυσαρκία, κακή διατροφή πλούσια σε κορεσμένα λίπη και απλά σάκχαρα καθώς και φτωχή σε φρούτα και λαχανικά. Η διαρκής προσήλωση σε συνήθειες υγιεινής διατροφής και τακτικής σωματικής άσκησης σε συνεργασία με τον κατάλληλο συνδυασμό φαρμακευτικής αγωγής (χάπια ή/και ινσουλίνη) θα επιτύχουν την όσο το δυνατόν καλύτερη ρύθμιση.

Άλλοι τύποι διαβήτη είναι:

  • Ο διαβήτης κύησης. Εμφανίζεται κατά τη διάρκεια της εγκυμοσύνης, κυρίως ως αποτέλεσμα των ορμονικών μεταβολών, ενώ πρόσθετοι επιβαρυντικοί παράγοντες είναι η κληρονομικότητα, η προϋπάρχουσα παχυσαρκία και η μεγάλη αύξηση του σωματικού βάρους κατά την εγκυμοσύνη.
  • Ο διαβήτης ως συνέπεια παθήσεων του παγκρέατος και ορισμένων ενδοκρινολογικών παθήσεων (π.χ. ο υπερθυρεοειδισμός, Cushing, Μεγαλακρία).
  • Μετά από λήψη ορισμένων φαρμάκων (π.χ. κορτιζόνη, διουρητικά, ψυχοφάρμακα) σε άτομα με προδιάθεση για διαβήτη.
  • Άλλες σπάνιες μορφές διαβήτη που οφείλονται σε κληρονομικά νοσήματα και γονιδιακές διαταραχές.

ΤΙ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΠΡΟΔΙΑΒΗΤΗΣ

Πρόκειται για μεταβατικό-ενδιάμεσο στάδιο μεταξύ της φυσιολογικής κατάστασης και του σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 2. Παρουσιάζει μεγάλο ενδιαφέρον κυρίως για δυο λόγους. Πρώτον διότι χωρίς παρέμβαση, δηλαδή απώλεια βάρους, σωστή διατροφή και σωματική άσκηση είναι δυνατόν να εξελιχτεί σε σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 2 (κίνδυνος έως 50% σε 5 έτη), ενώ αντίθετα η υιοθέτηση ενός υγιεινού τρόπου ζωής είναι δυνατόν να αναστρέψει την πορεία προς τον σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 2. Δεύτερον διότι σχετίζεται με αυξημένο κίνδυνο καρδιαγγειακής νόσου.

ΠΟΙΑ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΤΑ ΣΥΜΤΩΜΑΤΑ ΤΟΥ ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗ

Τα κλασικά συμπτώματα είναι η έντονη δίψα, η πολυουρία και η έντονη πείνα που οδηγεί σε πολυφαγία χωρίς απαραίτητα να αυξάνεται και το σωματικό βάρος. Η πολυουρία και η δίψα οφείλονται στο γεγονός ότι, όταν το σάκχαρο ξεπεράσει κάποια όρια, οι νεφροί δεν μπορούν πλέον να το συγκρατήσουν και αποβάλλεται στα ούρα συμπαρασύροντας και νερό. Άλλα συμπτώματα του σακχαρώδη διαβήτη είναι η ανεξήγητη αδυναμία/ καταβολή, η θόλωση της όρασης καθώς και ενοχλήσεις και κνησμός στα γεννητικά όργανα με αυξημένη συχνότητα εμφάνισης ουρολοιμώξεων και μυκητιάσεων των γεννητικών οργάνων. Ειδικά ο ΣΔ τύπου 2 μπορεί να εμφανίζεται χωρίς ή με πολύ ήπια συμπτώματα ακόμα και εάν το σάκχαρο είναι υψηλό. Στην περίπτωση αυτή η διάγνωση γίνεται είτε τυχαία σε κάποια μέτρηση σακχάρου, είτε με τη διάγνωση κάποιων από τις χρόνιες επιπλοκές του (π.χ. μετά από μια οφθαλμολογική εξέταση ή κάποιο καρδιαγγειακό επεισόδιο). Αντίθετα στον ΣΔ τύπου 1 τα συμπτώματα είναι πιο έντονα και εμφανίζονται εξελίσσονται γρηγορότερα οδηγώντας σε ταχύτερη διάγνωση της νόσου.

ΠΟΙΑ ΑΤΟΜΑ ΠΡΕΠΕΙ ΝΑ ΚΑΝΟΥΝ ΕΛΕΓΧΟ ΓΙΑ ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗ (SCREENING)

  • Ηλικία ≥45 έτη
  • Άτομα με παχυσαρκία ανεξαρτήτως ηλικίας
  • Οικογενειακό ιστορικό διαβήτη τύπου 1 ή 2 σε γονείς, αδέλφια, παιδιά
  • Ιστορικό υπέρτασης ή καρδιοαγγειακής νόσου
  • Ιστορικό διαβήτη κύησης ή/και γέννηση παιδιών με σωματικό βάρος >4 kg
  • Γυναίκες με σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών
  • Λήψη φαρμάκων που προδιαθέτουν σε αύξηση της γλυκόζης αίματος

 

ΘΕΡΑΠΕΙΑ ΣΤΟΝ ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗ

Α) ΑΝΤΙΔΙΑΒΗΤΙΚΑ ΦΑΡΜΑΚΑ

Τις περισσότερες φορές με τη διάγνωση του σακχαρώδη διαβήτη χρειάζεται να χορηγηθούν αντιδιαβητικά φάρμακα μαζί με τη σωστή διατροφή και την άσκηση. Το είδος και τη δοσολογία των φαρμάκων θα τα καθορίσει ο θεράπων γιατρός. Τα φάρμακα αυτά είναι χρήσιμα, μόνον όταν ο οργανισμός εξακολουθεί να παράγει ινσουλίνη. Δεν χορηγούνται στην εγκυμοσύνη. Τα αντιδιαβητικά φάρμακα διακρίνονται σε διάφορες κατηγορίες που ταξινομούνται σε ομάδες σύμφωνα με τον τρόπο δράσης τους. Έτσι έχουμε φάρμακα που: α) Αυξάνουν την έκκριση της ινσουλίνης, β) Ελαττώνουν την αντίσταση των ιστών στην ινσουλίνη, γ) Ελαττώνουν την απορρόφηση των υδατανθράκων από το έντερο, δ) αυξάνουν τη αποβολή του σακχάρου από τα ούρα. Κανένας τύπος αντιδιαβητικών φαρμάκων δεν μπορεί να ρυθμίσει άριστα τον διαβήτη αν δεν συνδυαστεί με πιστή τήρηση των οδηγιών σωστής διατροφής και άσκησης.

Β) ΙΝΣΟΥΛΙΝΗ

Η ινσουλινοθεραπεία χρειάζεται στις παρακάτω περιπτώσεις:

  • Σε άτομα με ΣΔ τύπου 1
  • Σε άτομα με ΣΔ τύπου 2 που δεν ρυθμίζονται ικανοποιητικά με άλλα αντιδιαβητικά φάρμακα ή υπάρχει αντένδειξη για τη χορήγησή τους ή στην έναρξη του διαβήτη όταν υπάρχει σημαντική απορρύθμιση για να επιτύχουμε γρηγορότερη και πιο αποτελεσματική ρύθμιση του σακχάρου
  • Σε περιπτώσεις εγκυμοσύνης.

Χορήγηση ινσουλίνης και είδη

Καλό είναι να ξέρεις μερικά βασικά πράγματα για την ορμόνη αυτή. Η ινσουλίνη χορηγείται με υποδόρια ένεση ή σε συνεχή υποδόρια έγχυση με το σύστημα αντλίας (ασθενείς με σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τύπου 1) ή ενδοφλέβια (σε ασθενείς με ΣΔ τύπου 1 ή 2 κατά την διάρκεια οξείας απορρύθμισης στα πλαίσια νοσηλείας) . Δεν μπορείς να την πάρεις από το στόμα, γιατί καταστρέφεται από τα υγρά του στομάχου. Ανάλογα με τη δομή τους οι ινσουλίνες διακρίνονται σε ανθρώπινου τύπου (σήμερα χρησιμοποιούνται σπάνια) και σε ανάλογα ινσουλίνης, που δημιουργήθηκαν με τροποποίηση του μορίου της ανθρώπινης ινσουλίνης. Ανάλογα με τη δράση τους οι ινσουλίνες διακρίνονται σε ταχείας δράσης σε μακράς δράσης, ενώ κυκλοφορούν και τα μείγματα ινσουλίνης.

ΠΑΡΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΗΣΗ ΑΤΟΜΩΝ ΜΕ ΣΑΚΧΑΡΩΔΗ ΔΙΑΒΗΤΗ

Αυτοέλεγχος σακχάρου

Αυτοέλεγχος του διαβήτη ή αυτομέτρηση είναι η εξέταση του σακχάρου του αίματος από το ίδιο το άτομο με διαβήτη με μικρές, εύχρηστες και αξιόπιστες ηλεκτρονικές συσκευές που ονομάζονται σακχαρόμετρα. Ο αυτοέλεγχος εκτός από τη μέτρηση περιλαμβάνει την καταγραφή των μετρήσεων στο ειδικό ημερολόγιο και τον σχολιασμό των πιθανών παραγόντων που ευθύνονται για τις ακραίες τιμές, είτε υπογλυκαιμίες είτε υπεργλυκαιμίες. Ολοκληρώνεται με την επίδειξη του ημερολογίου αυτοελέγχου στην επόμενη συνάντηση με τον γιατρό και την ανάλογη προσαρμογή της θεραπείας, της διατροφής, της άσκησης και της συνολικής διαβίωσης. Η συχνότητα των μετρήσεων εξαρτάται από το είδος και τους στόχους της θεραπείας.

 

Έλεγχος κετονών (οξόνης) αίματος

Χρειάζεται σε ΣΔ τύπου 1 σε οξείες καταστάσεις απορρύθμισης, όπως είναι ο πυρετός, ο τραυματισμός, οι λοιμώξεις, η κύηση ή όταν το σάκχαρο αίματος είναι πάνω από 250 mg/dl. Επιβάλλεται σε συμπτώματα κετοξέωσης όπως είναι η ναυτία, οι έμετοι, οι κοιλιακοί πόνοι, η δίψα, η αφυδάτωση, η ζάλη, η θολή όραση, ο πονοκέφαλος. Η παρουσία αυξημένης οξόνης σε συνδυασμό με αυξημένα επίπεδα σακχάρου είναι κατεπείγουσα κατάσταση και χρειάζεται άμεση επικοινωνία με τον γιατρό ή και νοσηλεία.

ΕΡΓΑΣΤΗΡΙΑΚΟΣ ΕΛΕΓΧΟΣ

Προϋπόθεση για την άριστη αντιμετώπιση του διαβητικού ασθενούς είναι η τακτική παρακολούθηση του με τους απαραίτητους κλινικούς και εργαστηριακούς ελέγχους

  • Μέτρηση γλυκοζυλιωμένης αιμοσφαιρίνης (HbA1c%). Η γλυκοζυλιωμένη αιμοσφαιρίνη HbA1C δείχνει τη μέση ρύθμιση του διαβήτη του τελευταίου διμήνου-τριμήνου. Η HbA1C και ο αυτοέλεγχος διαφέρουν και αλληλοσυμπληρώνονται σαν ιδανικό ζευγάρι.
  • Έλεγχος βιοχημικών – ορμονολογικών παραμέτρων στο αίμα και στα ούρα (γεν. αίματος, λιπίδια, ηπατική-νεφρική λειτουργία,  ηλεκτρολύτες, γεν.ούρων, μικρολευκωματίνη ούρων, θυρεοειδική λειτουργια, οστικός μεταβολισμός κτλ).
  • Παρακολούθηση συνοδών νοσημάτων και τυχόν χρόνιων επιπλοκών (μέτρηση αρτηριακής πίεσης, περιοδική καρδιολογική εκτίμηση, οφθαλμολογική εξέταση με βυθοσκόπηση, έλεγχος διαβητικής νευροπάθειας, εντοπισμός και αντιμετώπιση παραγόντων κινδύνου για σύνδρομο διαβητικού ποδιού κτλ)

Συνοπτικά ο σακχαρώδης διαβήτης είναι μια χρόνια πάθηση που μπορεί να αντιμετωπιστεί αποτελεσματικά και αυτό εξαρτάται από δύο συντελεστές: α) Τον γιατρό που ευθύνεται για τον θεραπευτικό σχεδιασμό. β) Το άτομο με διαβήτη που ευθύνεται για την εφαρμογή του σχεδίου. Η συνεργασία γιατρού και ατόμου με διαβήτη είναι μία πολύτιμη θεραπευτική συμμαχία εναντίον του διαβήτη. Η ευθύνη και η συμμετοχή στις αποφάσεις είναι κοινή και ισότιμη. Οι προσωπικές ανάγκες και προτιμήσεις του ασθενούς είναι σεβαστές και σημαντικές στη λήψη αποφάσεων. Η φροντίδα της υγείας του ατόμου με διαβήτη δεν είναι μόνο κοινωνική αλλά και ατομική υποχρέωση που προϋποθέτει κατάλληλη εκπαίδευση. Με την εκπαίδευση το άτομο με διαβήτη σταδιακά αναπτύσσει την ικανότητα να συμμετέχει συνειδητά στη φροντίδα της υγείας του, να είναι ευέλικτο, να κάνει σωστές επιλογές και να παίρνει συνετές αποφάσεις.