The Endocrine Unit of the University of Athens was founded in 1990 by the pioneer Professor Mr. D. Koutras and the Biochemist Dr. J. Mantzos and was considered to be the center for scientific research of the group of distinguished Endocrinologists of our time. At the same time, the Unit has operated to deliver a high quality medical service to the general population. In other words, it is a reference point in the treatment of endocrinopathies, for over 27 years – nearly the entire generation – as well as in dealing with the health of hundreds of patients each year. During the last 12 years, the Scientific Coordinator of the Unit has been a world-renowned Professor, Mr. G. Chrousos.


Examinations Annually


Patients Annually

17 Doctors

At your Disposal

27 Years

of Experience

This is the work motto of our team, that is scientific and administrative staff. The medical team is made up of highly experienced and trained scientists, who deliver patient-centred services. But besides doctors, a selected team made up of the secretary and the administrative stuff is also at the disposal of every patient in order to provide him with any kind of information, as well as to deliver any question or emergency to the attending physician. Responsible for the smooth running of the Unit, is Mrs. E. Papanikolaou.

Today, the Endocrine Unit provides a wide range of therapeutic services, primarily based on the overview of the endocrine system and providing, if necessary, mental health and nutrition services. We also have a department of pediatrics. The clinics have a patient – friendly environment that do not really reminds the traditional hospital or diagnostic center. Our philosophy is that a preventive healthcare is an everyday need and the duty of every person toward himself in order to protect his longevity and well-being. That’s why the clinic must be an attractive place with a relaxing environment: keep in mind that the positive psychology and calmness are important for the treatment of any illness.

The department is also known for its laboratory, which undertakes tests of patients (not only from the Unit). In particular, in our well-equipped laboratory hormone assays are performed at the diagnostic level (thyroid, function of bones, metabolism, gonadal function, adrenal glands, diagnosis of Hypopituitarism, etc.) that are used both for checkup of the patients from the outpatient clinics from the “Aghia Sofia” Children’s Hospital” (including the Department of Τhalassemia and the Units of Pediatric Hematology – Oncology of the Oncological Center “ELPIDA”) and for adult patients from our Unit.

Besides, more specialized medical examinations are carried out. For example, cortisol measurement in saliva or hair, for adrenal gland disorders detection and conducting tests by using stimulant medications, mainly for pediatric patients with growth problems. In addition, the Unit carries out significant research works, as many of research papers have been published in international and Greek journals and conference proceeding papers.

The reliability of the laboratory tests is a result of the combination of the quality, human resources and equipment. The laboratory is employed by two manufacturers, one laboratory technician, one biologist and one clinical chemist.

From the side of the technology infrastructure and analytical methods as they implemented, the laboratory has:

  1. Automated immunoassay analyzer Immulite 2000 Siemens(Chemiluminescence Immunoassay, CLIA)
  2. Automated immunoassay analyzer Cobas e411 , Roche (Electrochemiluminescent immunoassay, ECLIA)
  3. ELISA Photometer (Elisa Reader Labtech LT-4500) (Enzyme Immunoassay Method)

Within the framework of the research protocols and doctoral theses, there are also: adiponectin, leptin, GLP-1 total, GLP-1 active, GIP total, GIP active, Ghrelin, PYY, CRH, Glucagon, Amyloid-β40, hsIL-6, AGEs, Total peroxide, BDNF, Hair cortisol, Irisin, etc.

For the quality assurance, laboratory tests are regularly certified through the Randox International Quality Assessment Scheme.

Approximately 6,500 patients of all age categories are admitted to the laboratory each year and 45,000 examinations are performed.

The examinations provided by the Unit are the following:

1.Thyroid Function:

  • Thyroxine (T4)
  • Triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Free Thyroxine (FT4)
  • Free Triiodothyronine (FT3)
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • T3 Uptake test (RT3U)
  • Free Thyroxine Index (FTI)
  • Antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TG Ab)
  • Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO Ab)
  • Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulins (TSI)
  • Thyroglobulin (TG)
  • Calcitonin (CT)
  • Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG

2.Pituitary gland, gonadal, adrenal gland function:

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Prolactin (PRL)
  • Growth hormone (GH)
  • Estradiol (E2)
  • Progesterone (Prg)
  • Testosterone
  • Free testosterone
  • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)
  • β-Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)
  • Inhibin B
  • Somatomedin C (IGF I)
  • IGFBP-3
  • Cortisol (F) in serum, urine and saliva  
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-SO4)
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
  • 17-OH progesterone
  • D4 Androstenedione
  • Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
  • 11-Deoxycortisol (Compound S)
  • Plasma renin activity (PRA)
  • Serum aldosterone, urine
  • Catecholamine urine testing
  • Urine Metanephrines

3.Glucose metabolism:

  • Insulin
  • C-peptide

4.Calcium and Bone Metabolism

  • Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  • Osteocalcin (BGP)
  • Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP)
  • 25-OH-vitamin D3  
  • 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3
  • B-Cross Laps (CTx)
  • Total P1NP

5.Anemia Diagnosis

  • Ferritin
  • Folic acid
  • Vitamin B12

In addition, to meet the monitoring needs in a most comprehensive way, the Unit cooperates directly with other healthcare providers. In particular, the cooperation with “Aghia Sofia” Children’s Hospital, (with the General Hospital of Athens “Laiko” and the Eugenidio Hospital). Also, the Unit, represented by its Professor and Scientific Director G.P. Chrousos, participates in the UNESCO chair on “Adolescent Healthcare and Medicine” and on the University’s Research Center on study and treatment of Genetic and Malignant Childhood Diseases of the Medical School.

From a research point of view, the Unit provides a broad spectrum of activities, as it has contributed to the sample size estimation for the writing of the considerable numbers of dissertations and research protocols. Not only, the Unit is regularly presented at both Greek and international conferences as well as at the scientific events. For example, in the recent past run a research involving the representative sample for using the Stevia plant as a sugar substitute for the patients with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the Unit is to maintain its active and systematic research activity as to conduct more researches on autoimmune thyroiditis and how it’s linked with the environmental factors, cancer epidemiology, metabolic disorders and metabolic syndrome, the obesity, the diabetes mellitus and the polycystic ovary syndrome.

The patients with the above diseases are under a regular monitoring by the Endocrinologists of our Unit. Due to the monitoring together with research activities the Unit provides patients with modern medicine’s and personalized therapeutic approach. We also conduct preventive monitoring of patients who have an inherited predisposition and family history with specific health issues, such as in families with a history of malignancy. Furthermore, we provide therapy for the endocrine disorders related to pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes or hypothyroidism.

These diseases are also defined among pediatric patients, while when they are combined or related to developmental abnormalities in children, a multidisciplinary group of pediatricians and endocrinologists – under the supervision of the Scientific Manager – is formed for early intervention and recovering of the normal rate of growth. The most important complications of development concern the early transition from childhood to adolescence and the abnormalities of Pituitary function, where growth hormone is produced, the sufficiency of which is necessary.

In all the above cases of disorders, the diet plan for the patients is often recommended, which is provided at the Unit and in cooperation with the endocrinologist, aiming at the diet and the weight control or weight gain when the patient is underweight. For example, special intervention protocols are implemented to prevent and treat metabolic syndrome and obesity, as well as diabetes self-management. The diet plan includes certain proposals for changing nutrition habits, cooking methods and alternatives to eating out, as well as the food that is not recommended for specific health problems. Nutritional assessment is also recommended in cases such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

In the latter cases, mental-health monitoring to the patient is required. Similarly, for women with menstrual disorders, for the patients with Cushing’s syndrome and in other similar cases, when hormonal fluctuations affect mood, the assessment is carried out at the psychoneuroendocrinology level. For this reason, psychotherapy (cognitive behavioral therapy) and stress management are also provided by out Unit. These services are addressed to the patients with endocrine disorders, but also to anyone who needs psychological support. Therapy sessions sometimes are provided as a part of a long-term treatment, but may also be provided in individual case or condition: during the period of acceptance of disease diagnosis and medication adherence and compliance. In case our patients are children, family therapy can be also provided.

It’s a great honor  to briefly mention some of the prominent senior scientists and academics who have participated or still provide their assistance to the Unit and have contributed to its development from the scientific side and for the management of ethical issues:

  • the founders and the pioneer professors, Mr. Dimitris Koutras and Mr. Ioannis Mantzos
  • Mrs. Alevizaki Maria,
  • Mr. Valsamakis Georgios,
  • Mr. Kaltsas Grigorios,
  • Mrs. Kanaka  Gantenbein Christina
  • Mrs. Kassi Eva / Evanthia,
  • Mrs. Lambrinoudaki Irene
  • Mr. Mastorakos Georgios
  • Mrs. Bakopoulou Flora
  • Mr. Filippou Georgios

Mr. Chrousos P. George